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Thread: World handgun rounds

  1. #1
    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    World handgun rounds

    25 ( 6.35mm ) Automatic Pistol

    Introduced in the United States in 1908 with the Browning-designed, Colt-manufactured, 25 Vest Pocket Automatic Pistol. It was introduced in Europe a few years earlier in the F.N. Baby Browning, which is practically identical to the Colt. The design of these two pistols has been copied by manufacturers all over the world and literally dozens of different pistols have used this cartridge. The original Browning is still made ( for European consumption ), but Colt did not resume manufature of their model after WWII. Beretta, Galesi, Astra, Star and others also make 25 automatic pistols. The 25 Automatic has fairly high elocity for such a amall cartridge. However, the energy it delivers at any range is quite low, and this, combinedwith the full-metal jacketed bullet, adds up to very poor stopping or killing poweron anything. The 22 Short rimfire with the hollowpoint bullet is a better killer and will infact a more serious wound than the 25 Auto. In fact, small semi-auto pistols chambered for the 22 Short rimfire cut sales of the 25 Auto for a time. The 22 Short is much cheaper, too. The 25 auto is not powerful enough for hunting anything but sparrows or rats, nor is it adequate for serious self defence. However, the 25 semi-auto pistols are popular because of their small size. Their principal usefullness is as a threat, because no one wants to get shot if it can be avoided, even with the little 25. The 25 Auto has one adantage over the 22 Short in that being a rimless case, it feeds and functions more reliably in automatic pistols.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    7.62mm Russian Tokarev

    The official Russian pistol cartridge adopted in 1930 for the Tokarev Model TT-30and modified Model TT-33 automatic pistols. The pistols are a basic Browning-type design similar to the Colt 45 auto pistols. However, they incorporate many original features to simplify manufacturing processes and must be considered an advance over the original Browning patent. These pistols are often a little rough or crude in finish, but are well made and of excellent design. They have a 4 1/2-inch barrel and a magazine capacity of eight rounds. Moderate quantities hae been sold as military surplus. Some were made in China and Hungary, as well as in Russia. The Hungarian-made Tokarev, in a modified form called Tokagypt, is chambered for the 9mm Parabellum cartridge. The Chinese began exporting both pistols and ammunition in 1987 at very reasonable prices. The cartridge is very similar to the 7.63mm Mauser and some brands of Mauser ammunition can be fired in the Tokarev pistol. Well initially, introduced as a combat handgun cartridge, however, the 7.62mm Russian is a fair feild cartridge for small game as it has good velocity and flat trajactory, but needs softpoint or hunting-type bullets for maximum effectiveness. Loading data for the 7.63mm Mauser can be used. The Speer 30-caliber plinker bullet of 100 grains makes a good hunting bullet, but because it is highly greater than standard weight, it must be loaded down a bit in velocity.

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    Member Extraordinaire s.cheema's Avatar
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    very informative, thanks for sharing

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    32ACP (7.65mm)

    Designed by John Browning for his first successful automatic pistol, manufactured by FN in belgium, and introduced in 1899. 32 ACP is one of the most popular pistol cartridges ever developed. Colt, Remington, Harrington & Richardson, S & W, and savage made pistols for this cartridgein the U.S. In Europe, every company that turned aout automatic pistols chambered the 32 ACP. It was also used in the German-made Pickert revolver. In Europe, it is known as the 7.65mm Browning. 32 ACP is a semi-rimmed cartridge that, because of its relatively low power, is unusually well suited to small, low-cost pistols. 32 ACP is about the minimum size that can be seriously considered for self-defence. It is used exclusively for pocket-type, or house-guns and is not considered adequate for police or military use. However, in Europe it is often used in police pistols and as an alternate but unofficial caliber for military siearms. Loading tables generally give the bullet diameter of the 32 ACP as .312-inch or .314-inch. It is actually closer to .308-inch, and this is important if you intend to handload it. Effectie small game loads can be made up by using 30-caliber rifle bullets of 100 grains weight, intended for light loads and plinking. The Speer 30-caliber "Plinker" in the 32 Auto gives improved stopping power and reliable functioning.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by s.cheema View Post
    very informative, thanks for sharing
    More will be coming Inshallah by tommorow and than i will be posting for rifle cartridges as soon the hangun section finish.
    regards

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    Senior Member mhrehman's Avatar
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    Masood bro, an excellent effort , thanks for sharing and keep up the good work bro.
    "Facta Non Verba"

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    Expert Member Glockcohlic's Avatar
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    Greart Job Masood. Nicely Complied. Keep it up and bring up the remaining ones as you find time.
    If Guns cause crime, mine must be defective.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    32 Smith & Wesson Long


    This cartridge was developed for the Smith & Wesson. First Model, solid-frame, hand-ejector revolver introduced in 1903. The same cartridge with a flat, pointed bullet is the 32 Colt New Police. Colt, Harrington & Richardson, Iver Jhonson and Smith & Wesson were the principal companies making revolvers of this caliber in the U.S. Many Spanish and other European revolvers such as the Banyard and Pickert chambered the round. In Europe, it had not been as widely used as the shorter 32 S&W until some ISU centerfire target shooters discovered the 32 S&W Long, and noe there are several high-class European target autoloaders for the round.
    The 32 S&W Long is the smallest revolver cartridge deemed adequate for police use in United States, and it has been fairly popular with detectives or plain clothesmen. It has always been available in a variety of short, light, small-frame revolvers, some of them very well made. It has a reputation for excellent accuracy and has been used for target and match shooting in the past as well as now in ISU shooting. It is potentially as accurate as the 38 S&W Special, but not as versatile. It is about the minimum size for sporting use and with handloaded, hunting-type bullets is quite effective on small game or birds. It is not as popular or widely used for defensive a it once was because of the development of light-frame 38-caliber revolvers. Its range and effectiveness can be increased quite a bit by handloading.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    32 Harrington & Richardson Magnum

    the 32 H&R Magnum was the result of a joint project between Harrington & Richardson and the Federal Cartridge company. It was introduced in 1984 for the H&R Model 504, 532 and 586 revolvers, all of five shot capacity. This was followed in the same year by Charter Arms with their six-shot 32 H&R Magnum Police Undercoer revolver and in 1985 by the Ruger Model 32 Magnum Single-Six revolver. The 32 H&R Magnum is simply the older 32 Smith & Wesson Long case lengthed by .155-inch. Therefore, any 32 magnum revolver will also accept and fire both the 32 S&W and the 32 S&W long. This makes for a rather convenient and flexible situation because the shooter has a choice of three different cartridges that will work with one handgun, although each would require a different sight setting for precision shooting. Two loadings of the cartridge are available, either a semi-wadcutter bullet of 95 grains or an 85 grain jacketed hollowpoint.
    According to factory ballistic data, the 32 Magnum delivers almost double the energy of the 32 S&W Long and about 13 percent more energy than the standard 38 Special load. However, chronograph tests with various length revolver barrels demonstrated that actual velocity at the muzzel ranges from 60 to 100 fps below the factory-advertised figures. Neverthless, the cartridge performance level is well above that of any other 32-caliber handgun currently available. Some observers believe that the 32 Magnum will emerge as a popular self-defence cartridge in light, short, small-frame revolers. Others are of the opinion that it is better suited to feild use as a small game and varmint cartridge. In any event, the eventual popularity will depend to a large extent on the type and quality of the handguns that chamber it as well as the accuracy and effectiveness of available ammunition. There has long been a moderate interest in a 32 magnum and the H&R offering may just be what is needed to promote a much wider market demand once the shooting public has had an opportunity to realize the advantages of a smaller magnum cartridge. After all, one dosent need a cannon to shoot small game.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    9mm Luger (Parabellum)


    The 9mm Luger, or 9mm Parabellum, was introduced with the Model of 1902 Luger automatic pistol. It was adopted by the German navy in 1904 and by the German army in 1908. Since that time, it has been used by the military of practically by every European power. It is the world's most popular and widely-used military handgun cartridge. It has also been used extinsively in submachine guns. In the United States, Colt, Smith & Wesson, Ruger and many others chamber the 9mm, and there were too many foreign-made pistols to list here that are also available in it. In 1985, the 9mm was adopted as the official military cartridge by U.S. Armed forces (to replace the 45auto) along with the Beretta Model 92-F (M-9) 15-shot semi-auto pistol.


    Although the 9mm Luger delivers rather good performance for police, military or sporting use, it was not very popular in the U.S. until fairly recently. The principal reason may have been that no American-made arms were chambered for it early on. In 1954, Smith & Wesson brought out their new Model 39 automatic in this calibre and Colt chambered their lighweight Commander for the 9mm Luger, as well as the 45 and 38 Super in 1951. This, plus the influx of surplus 9mm military automatics imported after the war, greatly increased its popularity and acceptance in the country. At the present time, it is probably as widely used by American handgunners as any of other automatic pistol cartridge except possibly 45 auto. The principal complaint has always been that the 9mm Luger lacks stopping power as a defensive cartridge, and there are plenty of examples to prove this point. Howeer, the only automatic pistol cartridge with proven stopping power is the 45 ACP.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    9mm Russian Makarov

    Current Russian military cartridge used in the Makarov and Stechkin auto pistols. It was adopted shortly after the end of WWII, and its design may have been inspired by an experimental German cartridge called the 9mm Ultra. Other countries within the Russian political and military sephere also use the round.

    The Soviet 9mm pistol cartridge is intermediate in size and power between the 380 ACP and the 9mm Luger. It is a well-designed cartridge for its purpose, although a little underpowered by western standards. It would be satisfatory for small game if loaded with hunting-type bullets. Loading data of 380 ACP stepped up about 10 percent would probably work in pistols of this caliber.

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    357 Magnum

    Introduced in 1935 by Smith & Wesson for their heavy-frame revolver. The ammunition was developed by Winchester in co-operation with Smith & Wesson. Major Douglas B. Wesson (of S&W) and Philip B. Sharpe are also credited with much of the final development work. The 357 Magnum is based on the 38 Special case lengthened about 1/10 inch, so it will not chamber in standard 38 Special revolvers. This was the most powerful handgun cartridge in the world until 44 Magnum was introduced in 1955. Colt, Ruger, Taurus and Smith & Wesson manufacture revolvers of various types for this cartridge. There has also been a proliferation of imported single and double-action revolvers and seeral single shot pistols chamber it.
    Probably the most popular high-velosity handgun cartridge in the United States for police, hunting or target work. It provides about double the elocity and more than three times the energy of the standard 38 Special load. It is noted for its flat trajactory, deep penetration and great knock-down power. It has been used successfully on deer, black bear, elk and even grizzly bear. However, it is not really adequate for these large animals unless used by a good handgun shot. It is also used in repeating and single shot rifles as matched arms to go along with the revolver. In a 20 to 24-inch rifle barrel, the standard factory load will develop about 1650 fps muzzle velocity and special handloads will develop over 2000. It is considered the best all-round handgun hunting cartridge for small and medium game and, under proper conditions, for deer at shot range. During Korean conflict it was found to be very effective against the body armor used by the Communist forces

  13. #13
    Member grin313's Avatar
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    nice info for all
    CLEVER MEN MAKE CORRESPONDINGLY BIGGER MISTAKES

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    The original .357 Magnum cartridge used a large pistol primer and was designed to launch a 125 grain bullet at around 1600-1650 fps from a 6 inch barrel. Modern .357 Magnum Cartridges use small pistol primers, and pressures have been reduced to allow only about 1250-1350 fps from the same weapon. The reason for this is probably that gun manufacturers began making light frame revolvers in this caliber, and ammunition manufacturers reduced the pressure to avoid potential law suits.
    If the people be of sound mind, laws are unnecessary. If the people be not of sound mind, laws are useless. ~Plato

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    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by hounddawg View Post
    The original .357 Magnum cartridge used a large pistol primer and was designed to launch a 125 grain bullet at around 1600-1650 fps from a 6 inch barrel. Modern .357 Magnum Cartridges use small pistol primers, and pressures have been reduced to allow only about 1250-1350 fps from the same weapon. The reason for this is probably that gun manufacturers began making light frame revolvers in this caliber, and ammunition manufacturers reduced the pressure to avoid potential law suits.
    Excellent informative addition. Thanks.

  16. #16

    .22, the Mighty Mouse

    I found this recently on: http://www.chuckhawks.com/history_rimfire_ammo.htm Mr. Hawks explains this better than I ever could, therefore I shall not try to steal his thunder.

    A Brief History of .22 Rimfire Ammunition
    By Chuck Hawks

    The rimfire principle was used to create the first successful self-contained metallic ammunition. Rimfire cases are constructed with the priming compound spun inside the rim of the copper or brass case, which is crushed by the blow of the firing pin to ignite the main powder charge.
    The first rimfire cartridges were .22s, but after the type became established many larger caliber rimfire cartridges were developed in the mid to late 19th Century. Some of these had a good run of popularity until they were superceded by the development of higher pressure centerfire ammunition.
    Calibers ranged from the .25 Short to the .58 Miller. Probably the best known of the larger caliber rimfires are the .25 Stevens, .32 Long, and .44 Henry Flat. The latter was the cartridge for which the seminal Henry and Winchester 1866 "Yellow Boy" lever action rifles were chambered.
    Guns and ammunition for the last of the larger caliber rimfires was discontinued in the U.S. in the late 1930's and early 1940's. According to Cartridges of the World by Frank C. Barnes/Edited by M.L. McPherson, for which I am indebted for much of the historical information in this article, Navy Arms commissioned a run of .32 Long ammunition from a Brazilian manufacturer in 1990.
    In addition to the larger caliber rimfire cartridges of the past, in recent times sub-caliber rimfire cartridges have been introduced. Among these are the 5mm Remington Magnum, .17 Mach 2, and the very successful .17 HMR. However, the focus of this article is .22 caliber rimfire cartridges.
    All .22 rimfires (except the WRF and WMR) are ancient black powder designs, and use tapered heel bullets. If you examine a .22 S, L, or LR cartridge, you will see that the case and bullet are the same diameter. The part of the bullet inside of the case (the heel) is reduced in diameter to allow it to fit inside of the case. Such bullets are also called "outside lubricated," because they are ordinarily waxed or copper plated. In all other modern cartridges, the bullet shank is of constant diameter and the case is slightly larger than the bullet to allow the heel of the latter to fit inside. This old fashioned term for this design is "inside lubricated," as the lubrication grooves of lead bullets are inside of the case.
    The BB Cap was the first type of rimfire ammunition. BB stands for "bullet breech." It was invented in France around 1845, designed for the Flobert indoor target rifle. BB Caps were designed for shooting gallery use and are seldom encountered these days, as shooting galleries are now considered politically incorrect by socialists, tort lawyers, girly men, and liberal politicians.
    The BB Cap fires a round lead projectile (ball) powered only by the priming compound in the rim of the case, which is very short as no powder is used. The case is just there to hold the priming compound and bullet together.
    BB Caps were made in Europe and America until fairly recently. The last I saw were made in Germany by RWS who, I believe, still loads them today.
    The successor to the BB Cap was the CB Cap. "CB" stands for "Conical Bullet." The CB cap uses a 29 grain round nose lead bullet and a tiny pinch of powder. This is also shooting gallery ammunition. CCI produces modern CB Cap loads in .22 Short and .22 Long cases (firearms chambered for the Long Rifle cartridge being far more common today) for gallery and indoor practice use. The MV of either is 710 fps.
    The common .22 Short cartridge dates from 1857. It is the oldest cartridge still being loaded today. It was the first American metallic cartridge, introduced in for the first S&W revolver, a pocket pistol developed for personal protection. It was popular during the American Civil War, carried as personal weapons by soldiers on both sides.
    The .22 Short is a development of the BB cap using a 29 grain round nose (RN) bullet in a lengthened case (compared to the BB Cap). It was originally powered by 4 grains of fine black powder (about FFFFg). After the advent of smokeless powder, the .22 short was adapted to the new, cleaner burning propellant. Although no longer extremely popular, it is still used all over the world and in the Olympic games for the rapid fire pistol event. Modern .22 Short High Velocity ammunition is loaded to a MV of approximately 1095 fps and ME of 77 ft. lbs. from a rifle barrel (Remington figures).
    The .22 Short is a pretty anemic round, and in 1871 a longer case of the same diameter was developed for the 29 grain Short bullet. This became the .22 Long cartridge, still occasionally seen (but obsolescent) today. The .22 Long was once chambered in a large number of pistols and rifles. It was originally loaded with 5.0 grains of very fine black powder and offered about 100+ fps greater velocity than the .22 Short. The Long survived the change to smokeless powder and is still occasionally seen today. CCI loads their .22 Long High Velocity ammo to a MV of 1215 fps and ME of 95 ft. lbs.
    Around 1880 the .22 Extra Long cartridge appeared, powered by 6.0 grains of black powder. It fired a 40 grain tapered heel bullet (the same as the later .22 Long Rifle) at a MV similar to the Long Rifle, but used a longer case than the .22 LR. This cartridge was available in a number of rifles in the late 19th Century. .22 Extra Long ammunition was finally discontinued around 1935.
    In 1887 the Stevens Arms Co. developed the ultimate in .22 rimfire cartridges, the .22 Long Rifle. This used the .22 Long case with a 40 grain RN bullet loaded to higher velocity than the 29 grain Long bullet. It shot flatter and hit harder than any of the previous .22 rimfires except the .22 Extra Long, whose performance it essentially duplicated in a shorter case, and it was more accurate than that cartridge.
    The .22 Long Rifle caught on, was adapted to both rifles and pistols, and became the most popular sporting and target shooting cartridge in the world. After the advent of smokeless powder a High Velocity version of the .22 LR was introduced, which further extended the .22 LR's superiority as a small game hunting cartridge.
    Modern .22 LR target ammunition is loaded to a MV of about 1085 fps with a 40 grain RN bullet. .22 Long Rifle High Velocity cartridges drive a 40 grain copper-plated bullet at a MV of 1255 fps and ME of 140 ft. lbs. from a rifle barrel. For small game hunters, most manufacturers offer a 36-37 grain copper-plated lead hollow point bullet at about 1280 fps (Remington figures). This load expands nicely and makes for quick kills on small game, given proper bullet placement.
    Because of its popularity there are many permutations of the .22 LR cartridge. One of the more useless is the .22 LR shot cartridge, which fires a pinch of very fine #12 shot. This load is used, among other things, to collect very small creatures, mice and the like, for museum displays. This is not a hunting load, as it is ineffective for use even on very small birds beyond about 10 feet.
    Far more useful are the Hyper Velocity .22 LR loads pioneered by CCI in the form of the Stinger. These use lightweight hollow point bullets at increased velocity for flatter trajectory and dramatic expansion. Remington followed suit with their famous Yellow Jacket load, and the idea was subsequently picked-up by most other manufacturers. The CCI Stinger drives a 32 grain GLHP bullet at a MV of 1640 fps with 191 ft. lbs. of ME.
    In 1890 the .22 Winchester Rim Fire (WRF) was introduced. This cartridge is loaded with a 45 grain, flat point, inside lubricated bullet with a full diameter heel, rather than the tapered heel bullet of the .22 LR. The .22 WRF fires a .224" diameter bullet, just like modern centerfire .22s and the later .22 Magnum (WMR). At one time a 40 grain HP bullet was also available, but it has since fallen by the wayside.
    Remington called this cartridge the .22 Remington Special, and loaded it with a 45 grain RN bullet. The .22 Rem. Spec. and .22 WRF are the same cartridge and are interchangeable.
    The .22 WRF is a good small game cartridge, superior to the .22 LR. CCI loads the ammunition, and Winchester does an occasional run of .22 WRF. Modern CCI ammo is loaded to a MV of 1300 fps and ME of 169 ft. lbs.
    Today the .22 WRF is kept alive primarily as a less destructive small game load for rifles chambered for the .22 WMR cartridge. The .22 Magnum is a lengthened version of the .22 WRF and will chamber in firearms designed for the .22 WMR, much as .38 Special ammunition may be fired from .357 Magnum guns, although it will not function correctly in autoloaders.
    In the early 20th Century a pair of cartridges about the same size and offering about the same ballistics as the .22 LR were introduced. These were designed for use in autoloading rifles, used smokeless powder and inside lubricated bullets, and in that respect are a more modern design than the .22 LR. However, as soon as the established .22 LR was universally converted to smokeless powder, the .22 Auto cartridges became superfluous.
    The .22 Winchester Automatic cartridge was designed for their Model 1903 autoloading rifle (discontinued in 1932). Ammo was produced into the 1970's. Remington's .22 Automatic appeared in their Model 16 autoloader. That rifle was discontinued in 1928, and the ammunition was not loaded after the Second World War. Although similar, these two cartridges differ dimensionally and are not interchangeable.
    Jump to 1959, the year Winchester introduced their very successful .22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire (WMR). This cartridge pushes the limits of pressure possible with a rimfire case given the limits of contemporary metallurgy. The .22 Magnum was initially offered with 40 grain FMJ and JHP bullets at an advertised MV of 2000 fps from a rifle barrel and 1550 fps from a pistol barrel. Due to its high velocity, .22 WMR cartridges are loaded with jacketed bullets.
    The .22 WMR is based on a lengthened version of the .22 WRF case, like that cartridge uses standard diameter .224" inside lubricated bullets, and remains to this day the most powerful .22 rimfire cartridge ever. It has been adapted to many types and brands of firearms, and .22 WMR ammunition is loaded by all of the major rimfire ammunition manufacturers and is very widely distributed.
    As good as the .22 WMR is as a rifle cartridge, I feel that it is even better as a revolver cartridge. It offers velocity and trajectory similar to the centerfire magnum pistol cartridges at a fraction of the recoil and cost. Convertible revolvers, supplied with both .22 LR and .22 WMR cylinders, are the ultimate in versatility for plinking, small game hunting, and varmint shooting.
    Today the .22 WMR is available with bullet weights ranging from about 30 to 50 grains, and CCI loads a shot shell version. The standard Winchester 40 grain JHP bullet is now loaded to a rifle MV of 1910 fps with ME of 324 ft. lbs. The various 30-40 grain JHP bullets are best for varmint hunting, but are overly destructive on small game intended for the dinner table. A better choice in that case are the heavier 45-50 grain bullets intended for small game hunting, or the use of .22 WRF ammo when possible.
    The .22 WMR is the newest, commercially successful, .22 rimfire cartridge (so far). With .22 rimfire cartridges now available from the BB Cap to the WMR, the field seems pretty well covered. Recent rimfire development has concentrated on lighter, smaller caliber bullets that can achieve higher velocity within the existing pressure limits. The .17 HMR, based on a necked-down .22 Magnum case, is the best example.
    Rimfire cartridge design is limited by the fact that the brass case rim must be weak enough to be crushed by the blow of the firing pin. This severely limits the permissible maximum pressure and thus the performance of the cartridge. I suspect that the advent of more potent .22 rimfire cartridges will depend on the future development of more advanced case materials.
    If the people be of sound mind, laws are unnecessary. If the people be not of sound mind, laws are useless. ~Plato

  17. #17
    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by hounddawg View Post
    I found this recently on: http://www.chuckhawks.com/history_rimfire_ammo.htm Mr. Hawks explains this better than I ever could, therefore I shall not try to steal his thunder.

    A Brief History of .22 Rimfire Ammunition
    By Chuck Hawks

    The rimfire principle was used to create the first successful self-contained metallic ammunition. Rimfire cases are constructed with the priming compound spun inside the rim of the copper or brass case, which is crushed by the blow of the firing pin to ignite the main powder charge.
    The first rimfire cartridges were .22s, but after the type became established many larger caliber rimfire cartridges were developed in the mid to late 19th Century. Some of these had a good run of popularity until they were superceded by the development of higher pressure centerfire ammunition.
    Calibers ranged from the .25 Short to the .58 Miller. Probably the best known of the larger caliber rimfires are the .25 Stevens, .32 Long, and .44 Henry Flat. The latter was the cartridge for which the seminal Henry and Winchester 1866 "Yellow Boy" lever action rifles were chambered.
    Guns and ammunition for the last of the larger caliber rimfires was discontinued in the U.S. in the late 1930's and early 1940's. According to Cartridges of the World by Frank C. Barnes/Edited by M.L. McPherson, for which I am indebted for much of the historical information in this article, Navy Arms commissioned a run of .32 Long ammunition from a Brazilian manufacturer in 1990.
    In addition to the larger caliber rimfire cartridges of the past, in recent times sub-caliber rimfire cartridges have been introduced. Among these are the 5mm Remington Magnum, .17 Mach 2, and the very successful .17 HMR. However, the focus of this article is .22 caliber rimfire cartridges.
    All .22 rimfires (except the WRF and WMR) are ancient black powder designs, and use tapered heel bullets. If you examine a .22 S, L, or LR cartridge, you will see that the case and bullet are the same diameter. The part of the bullet inside of the case (the heel) is reduced in diameter to allow it to fit inside of the case. Such bullets are also called "outside lubricated," because they are ordinarily waxed or copper plated. In all other modern cartridges, the bullet shank is of constant diameter and the case is slightly larger than the bullet to allow the heel of the latter to fit inside. This old fashioned term for this design is "inside lubricated," as the lubrication grooves of lead bullets are inside of the case.
    The BB Cap was the first type of rimfire ammunition. BB stands for "bullet breech." It was invented in France around 1845, designed for the Flobert indoor target rifle. BB Caps were designed for shooting gallery use and are seldom encountered these days, as shooting galleries are now considered politically incorrect by socialists, tort lawyers, girly men, and liberal politicians.
    The BB Cap fires a round lead projectile (ball) powered only by the priming compound in the rim of the case, which is very short as no powder is used. The case is just there to hold the priming compound and bullet together.
    BB Caps were made in Europe and America until fairly recently. The last I saw were made in Germany by RWS who, I believe, still loads them today.
    The successor to the BB Cap was the CB Cap. "CB" stands for "Conical Bullet." The CB cap uses a 29 grain round nose lead bullet and a tiny pinch of powder. This is also shooting gallery ammunition. CCI produces modern CB Cap loads in .22 Short and .22 Long cases (firearms chambered for the Long Rifle cartridge being far more common today) for gallery and indoor practice use. The MV of either is 710 fps.
    The common .22 Short cartridge dates from 1857. It is the oldest cartridge still being loaded today. It was the first American metallic cartridge, introduced in for the first S&W revolver, a pocket pistol developed for personal protection. It was popular during the American Civil War, carried as personal weapons by soldiers on both sides.
    The .22 Short is a development of the BB cap using a 29 grain round nose (RN) bullet in a lengthened case (compared to the BB Cap). It was originally powered by 4 grains of fine black powder (about FFFFg). After the advent of smokeless powder, the .22 short was adapted to the new, cleaner burning propellant. Although no longer extremely popular, it is still used all over the world and in the Olympic games for the rapid fire pistol event. Modern .22 Short High Velocity ammunition is loaded to a MV of approximately 1095 fps and ME of 77 ft. lbs. from a rifle barrel (Remington figures).
    The .22 Short is a pretty anemic round, and in 1871 a longer case of the same diameter was developed for the 29 grain Short bullet. This became the .22 Long cartridge, still occasionally seen (but obsolescent) today. The .22 Long was once chambered in a large number of pistols and rifles. It was originally loaded with 5.0 grains of very fine black powder and offered about 100+ fps greater velocity than the .22 Short. The Long survived the change to smokeless powder and is still occasionally seen today. CCI loads their .22 Long High Velocity ammo to a MV of 1215 fps and ME of 95 ft. lbs.
    Around 1880 the .22 Extra Long cartridge appeared, powered by 6.0 grains of black powder. It fired a 40 grain tapered heel bullet (the same as the later .22 Long Rifle) at a MV similar to the Long Rifle, but used a longer case than the .22 LR. This cartridge was available in a number of rifles in the late 19th Century. .22 Extra Long ammunition was finally discontinued around 1935.
    In 1887 the Stevens Arms Co. developed the ultimate in .22 rimfire cartridges, the .22 Long Rifle. This used the .22 Long case with a 40 grain RN bullet loaded to higher velocity than the 29 grain Long bullet. It shot flatter and hit harder than any of the previous .22 rimfires except the .22 Extra Long, whose performance it essentially duplicated in a shorter case, and it was more accurate than that cartridge.
    The .22 Long Rifle caught on, was adapted to both rifles and pistols, and became the most popular sporting and target shooting cartridge in the world. After the advent of smokeless powder a High Velocity version of the .22 LR was introduced, which further extended the .22 LR's superiority as a small game hunting cartridge.
    Modern .22 LR target ammunition is loaded to a MV of about 1085 fps with a 40 grain RN bullet. .22 Long Rifle High Velocity cartridges drive a 40 grain copper-plated bullet at a MV of 1255 fps and ME of 140 ft. lbs. from a rifle barrel. For small game hunters, most manufacturers offer a 36-37 grain copper-plated lead hollow point bullet at about 1280 fps (Remington figures). This load expands nicely and makes for quick kills on small game, given proper bullet placement.
    Because of its popularity there are many permutations of the .22 LR cartridge. One of the more useless is the .22 LR shot cartridge, which fires a pinch of very fine #12 shot. This load is used, among other things, to collect very small creatures, mice and the like, for museum displays. This is not a hunting load, as it is ineffective for use even on very small birds beyond about 10 feet.
    Far more useful are the Hyper Velocity .22 LR loads pioneered by CCI in the form of the Stinger. These use lightweight hollow point bullets at increased velocity for flatter trajectory and dramatic expansion. Remington followed suit with their famous Yellow Jacket load, and the idea was subsequently picked-up by most other manufacturers. The CCI Stinger drives a 32 grain GLHP bullet at a MV of 1640 fps with 191 ft. lbs. of ME.
    In 1890 the .22 Winchester Rim Fire (WRF) was introduced. This cartridge is loaded with a 45 grain, flat point, inside lubricated bullet with a full diameter heel, rather than the tapered heel bullet of the .22 LR. The .22 WRF fires a .224" diameter bullet, just like modern centerfire .22s and the later .22 Magnum (WMR). At one time a 40 grain HP bullet was also available, but it has since fallen by the wayside.
    Remington called this cartridge the .22 Remington Special, and loaded it with a 45 grain RN bullet. The .22 Rem. Spec. and .22 WRF are the same cartridge and are interchangeable.
    The .22 WRF is a good small game cartridge, superior to the .22 LR. CCI loads the ammunition, and Winchester does an occasional run of .22 WRF. Modern CCI ammo is loaded to a MV of 1300 fps and ME of 169 ft. lbs.
    Today the .22 WRF is kept alive primarily as a less destructive small game load for rifles chambered for the .22 WMR cartridge. The .22 Magnum is a lengthened version of the .22 WRF and will chamber in firearms designed for the .22 WMR, much as .38 Special ammunition may be fired from .357 Magnum guns, although it will not function correctly in autoloaders.
    In the early 20th Century a pair of cartridges about the same size and offering about the same ballistics as the .22 LR were introduced. These were designed for use in autoloading rifles, used smokeless powder and inside lubricated bullets, and in that respect are a more modern design than the .22 LR. However, as soon as the established .22 LR was universally converted to smokeless powder, the .22 Auto cartridges became superfluous.
    The .22 Winchester Automatic cartridge was designed for their Model 1903 autoloading rifle (discontinued in 1932). Ammo was produced into the 1970's. Remington's .22 Automatic appeared in their Model 16 autoloader. That rifle was discontinued in 1928, and the ammunition was not loaded after the Second World War. Although similar, these two cartridges differ dimensionally and are not interchangeable.
    Jump to 1959, the year Winchester introduced their very successful .22 Winchester Magnum Rimfire (WMR). This cartridge pushes the limits of pressure possible with a rimfire case given the limits of contemporary metallurgy. The .22 Magnum was initially offered with 40 grain FMJ and JHP bullets at an advertised MV of 2000 fps from a rifle barrel and 1550 fps from a pistol barrel. Due to its high velocity, .22 WMR cartridges are loaded with jacketed bullets.
    The .22 WMR is based on a lengthened version of the .22 WRF case, like that cartridge uses standard diameter .224" inside lubricated bullets, and remains to this day the most powerful .22 rimfire cartridge ever. It has been adapted to many types and brands of firearms, and .22 WMR ammunition is loaded by all of the major rimfire ammunition manufacturers and is very widely distributed.
    As good as the .22 WMR is as a rifle cartridge, I feel that it is even better as a revolver cartridge. It offers velocity and trajectory similar to the centerfire magnum pistol cartridges at a fraction of the recoil and cost. Convertible revolvers, supplied with both .22 LR and .22 WMR cylinders, are the ultimate in versatility for plinking, small game hunting, and varmint shooting.
    Today the .22 WMR is available with bullet weights ranging from about 30 to 50 grains, and CCI loads a shot shell version. The standard Winchester 40 grain JHP bullet is now loaded to a rifle MV of 1910 fps with ME of 324 ft. lbs. The various 30-40 grain JHP bullets are best for varmint hunting, but are overly destructive on small game intended for the dinner table. A better choice in that case are the heavier 45-50 grain bullets intended for small game hunting, or the use of .22 WRF ammo when possible.
    The .22 WMR is the newest, commercially successful, .22 rimfire cartridge (so far). With .22 rimfire cartridges now available from the BB Cap to the WMR, the field seems pretty well covered. Recent rimfire development has concentrated on lighter, smaller caliber bullets that can achieve higher velocity within the existing pressure limits. The .17 HMR, based on a necked-down .22 Magnum case, is the best example.
    Rimfire cartridge design is limited by the fact that the brass case rim must be weak enough to be crushed by the blow of the firing pin. This severely limits the permissible maximum pressure and thus the performance of the cartridge. I suspect that the advent of more potent .22 rimfire cartridges will depend on the future development of more advanced case materials.
    Thanks again for submitting this informative data of .22's. Thanks again dear bro. Keep it up.
    Regards.

  18. #18
    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    357 Remington Maximum

    The 357 Maximum was announced as a joint venture between Remington Arms Co. and Sturm, Ruger, Inc. The cartridge is basically 3/10 inch elongation of the 357 Magnum case. the first handgun to chamber the round was the Ruger Blackhawk 357 Maximum single-action revolver introduced in 1983. This was followed in 1984 by the Dan Wesson double-action, stainless steel revolver, the Seville single-action stainless steel revolver and the Thompson/Center Contender single shot pistol. During the same year Harrington & Richardson chambered their Model 258 single shot rifle for this round as did Savage in their Model 24V and Model 24VS Camper over/under rifle shotgun combination guns. Although Remington developed the commercial 357 Maximum, a similar wildcat cartridge was actually developed earlier by Elgin Gates.
    Unfortunately, the 357 Maximum revolvers all developed excessie gas-cutting just forward of the cylinder within 1000 rounds or so when fired with full factory loads. Ruger withdrew their Blackhawk 357 Maximum revolver from production pending additional research and possible engineering changes. Dan Wesson approached the problem by offering a second barrel with each gun sold and a discount on a third barrel if needed. Since Dan Wesson revolvers have easily interchangeable barrels, this was a viable solution. There did not appear to be any danger involved, but it was something manufacturers did not like. There is, of course, no such problem with the 357 Maximum. As this is written, the erosion problem with 357 Maximum reolvers hass not been solved, but ammunition is available and the cartridge has gained some success as a silhoutte round in single shot pistols and in Wesson revolvers.
    Efforts to develop ultrs high-velocity revolvers have not been crowned with unbridled success. The 22 Remington Jet and the Model 53 Smith & Wesson revolverr is another example of a combination that was discontinued because of mechanical troubles. In the case of the 357 Maximum, the cartridge differs from the standard 357 Magnum only in case length, so one can drop back to shooting the 357 Magnum in any Maximum revolver or simply handload to lower velocity levels using the Maximum case. Factory ballistics were taken in a 10 1/2-inch revolver with the same length barrel is about 200 fps lower than the advertised figure.
    The 357 Maximum was coneied primarily as an ultra-velocity, flat-trajectory silhoutte cartridge. That it would also make a good feild cartridge for hunting small and medium game is pretty obvious. Many would consider it a good deer cartridge, but when used in a handgun, it would probably wound a good percentage of the time. Of course, a good deal depends on the skill of the person using it and as noted, elsewhere, the older, less powerful 357 Magnum has killed its share of big game. Certainly, it will be used as a big game handgun cartridge, but the measure of success will depend as much on the man behind the gun as on the cartridge. It is difficult to perdict the eventual popularity of this round or even its long-term survival at this particular point in time.

  19. #19
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    38 Smith & Wesson Special

    Also known as the 38 Colt special and, more generally, 38 special. It was deeloped by S&W and introduced with their Military & Police Model revoler in 1902. It was originally a military cartridge to replace the unsatisfactory 38 Long Colt then in use by the Army. Colt brought out their version in 1909, which differs from the original only in the shape of the bullet, a flat-point style, Colt, Smith & Wesson, and others make revolvers specifically for this cartridge. SeveralvBelgian, German and Spanish firms also make 38 Special revolvers. The S&W 52 Target Auto is still made for the mid-range wadcutter load. A number of goodvquality, lever-action Winchester clones (1866, 1873, 1892 ) are chambered for the 38 Special.
    The 38 Special is considered one of the best-balanced all-round handgun cartridges ever designed. It is also one of the most accurate and is very widely used for match shooting. Any 357 Magnum revolver will also shoot the 38 Special. It has become just about the standard police cartridge in U.S., and to a large extent in Mexico and Canada. It is also usable in lightweight pocket revolers. Several companies make over/under, two shot, derringe-type pistols in this caliber that are compact and powerful for close-in self-defence. The 38 Special is also a very popular sporting cartridge for hunting small to medium game and varmint-type animals. With modern hunting bullets it is effective for this purpose. Because of its moderate recoil, the average person can learn to shoot well with it in a fairly short time, something not true of the 357 or 44 Magnums.

  20. #20
    Expert Member masood357's Avatar
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    380 ACP

    Designed by John Browning and introduced in Europe by FN of Belgium in 1912 as the 9mm Browning Short, and was added to the Colt Pocket Automatic line in 1908. It has been adopted as the official military pistol cartridge by several governments, including Czechoslovakia, Italy and Sweden and is much used by European police. Colt, High Standard, Remington and Savage have made pistols in this caliber in the U.S. In Europe, Browning, Beretta, Bayard, CZ, Frommer, Astra, Star, Llama, Walther and others made or make auto pistols in 380-caliber.
    This is another cartridge which has been very popular because of the light, handy pistols that are chambered for it. The 380 Auto has more stopping power and is a far better cartridge for almost any purpose than the 32 Auto. It is about the minimum auto pistol caliber considered adequate for police or military use. For self-defence it is not as powerful as the 9mm Luger, 38 auto or a few others, but this is offset to a certain extent by the reduced size and weight of the arms it is used in. For hunting or feild use, it will do a pretty good job on rabbits, birds or other small game. It has a fairly high velocity as compared to most light handguns, and this is an advantage for feild use. With cast or swaged half-jacketed bullets of hunting type it will perform well on small game, but not many shooters want to bother reloading it.

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