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  1. Advantages and Disadvantages

    One advantage of firearms that was recognized by several commentators of the day, but not always since, was their psychological impact. Both small-arms and heavy artillery, especially in the first half of the sixteenth century, could be remarkably inaccurate, but one should never underestimate their ability to instill raw, enervating fear in an enemy by no more than the roar of their discharge. Machiavelli (whose Art of Warre was first published in English in 1560, reprinted 1573 and 1588) believed ...