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.50CAL
05-02-2013, 12:18 AM
Practice

When we go to the range, we tend to do what’s fun or easy rather than concentrating on improving our weakest skills, and that’s OK.

Shooting should be fun. But especially when practicing with our everyday carry pistol—instead of our favorite range gun—we would be better served if we focus on some drills designed to improve our defensive skills. And, although it is a bit expensive to do all of our practice with premium defensive .22LR Remington Yellow Jacket ammunition, we should cycle that ammunition through our pistol often enough to keep fresh fodder in our carry gun, be familiar with how it runs and know where it hits. Here’s a practice drill that consumes one 50-round box of defensive ammunition and includes some of the skills we all should have. Why again .22LR in the practice ?. Well for few good reasons. Some of them are

a) They are light weight b) They are more accurate in short & long distance shooting c) They are small in size & easy to carry d) They are chew in maintance e) They have really cheap ammo f) They have affordable price g) They have less recoil h) They are easy to operate by everyone in the family either by kids or women i) There ammo is available easily (like Walmart).

For this exercise, you’ll need two targets with center-mass and head-shot areas defined, or you can make one yourself with an 8-inch circle representing the upper chest and a 3×5-inch card for the head-scoring area.

Remember, the idea here is to use your daily carry pistol the way you would normally carry it concealed. If you find you are having trouble making the times or you’re not practiced in drawing from concealment, try working the drills from a low-ready position—with both hands on the pistol and the muzzle down. When you find you can shoot this drill comfortably, it’s time to add elements like vocalising and moving. As you draw the pistol or point it, yell, “Don’t move!” and take a big step to one side or the other. At a distance of 3 yards, draw and fire two rounds at center mass within 2 seconds, strong hand only, and repeat. Next, draw and fire two rounds center mass and one round to the head within 3 seconds, then repeat.

Move back to 5 yards, draw and fire two rounds on two separate targets, aiming for center mass, each within 4 seconds. Retreat to 10 yards, and from a low-ready position, fire two rounds center mass within 4 seconds. Finally, also from 10 yards and from the low-ready position, fire two rounds each, center mass, on two targets, within 5 seconds. You know they say 2 is better than 1 . Carrying 2 .22LR pistols are always better than carrying one 9mm or 45ACP pistols. Almost every .22LR pistols are light weight small & easy to carry. I carry weapon for my safety not for looks. What ever gives me an edge in any given situation, i rather have that extra edge than not having. Be smart & choose wisely.

Now repeat the same above procedure with 2 pistols.

Don’t forget your post-shooting sequence: After you’re done shooting, bring the pistol down to low ready, scan, breathe and reload the pistol. Especially with pistols that may only have a 10 - or 12 - round capacity, it’s important to get the gun back to full capacity after shooting. Practicing your tactical or speed reloads should be part of all training sessions.

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If you find getting center-mass hits at 10 yards is easy, move back and try shooting at 15 or 25 yards and in some cases i suggest to move it all the way up to 50 yards or more. Yes, most defensive shootings occur at shorter ranges, but you should still have an idea of your capabilities at distance should the need arise. This drill can help you improve your skills and sort out your defensive choices.

Ch_Adnan
06-02-2013, 04:15 PM
nice share keep it up

ajmal virk
06-02-2013, 04:21 PM
Nice and very informative share.

Ameer
06-02-2013, 06:23 PM
nice.........

Moeen
13-02-2013, 12:45 AM
Salam All,
Very Nice where is this range?
Fairfax huh? Near GMU should I presume? Used to go to Blueridge arsenal quite a bit. And then I started doing the range over in Warrenton as well. But don't remember this one, I do recall there being one somewhere near Manassas or Bull Run...?
Curious.
Been advocating .22lr for carry for ages. Been carrying one around for ages too. My favorite is a Walther PPK in .22lr or Walther P22.

arawan
13-02-2013, 09:37 AM
Salam All,
Very Nice where is this range?
Fairfax huh? Near GMU should I presume? Used to go to Blueridge arsenal quite a bit. And then I started doing the range over in Warrenton as well. But don't remember this one, I do recall there being one somewhere near Manassas or Bull Run...?
Curious.
Been advocating .22lr for carry for ages. Been carrying one around for ages too. My favorite is a Walther PPK in .22lr or Walther P22.

Dear Moeen Sahib, Although, this debate is old enough but just to make my wish stronger, Can you please put more light on .22lr as a routine carrying handgun?

AK47
13-02-2013, 09:43 AM
Nice share, thanks.

And then we have our own top expert coming in and recommending the .22lr as well. Fine.

I'd just like to know from both of you - and Moeen bro specifically - is the Walther P-22 a reliable weapon?

The general perception about the .22 handguns happens to be that people requiring serious SD cover do not quite impose much confidence in the miniature mechanism of the .22 platform, as it very often jams the cycling randomly. The mechanism seems to be "sensitive" to many factors in the hands of the user.

I agree with both of you that it's easy to shoot it out more accurately, enabling better shot placements as a vital factor to neutralize any threatening object, but it's the no-confidence in the reliability sector of the cycling process itself that keeps away many seasoned people from the .22 platform, deeming it a fun gun and no serious business item, only.

Let me know on background of above perception, which guns from this platform you deem fit to carry as primary SD weapon, is the Walther P-22 a reliable handgun? I'm still missing out this caliber, but I loved shooting out the Buckmark goodie of Denovo 87 bro, last time I was in Sialkot. It was plain bulls. BUT. It did jam occasionally!!


Regards.

Moeen
13-02-2013, 09:44 AM
Salam All,
@Arawan - as for routine carry the gun is very very light, easily concealable, has very good accurate lethal range which some of the other calibers do not, has low recoil - hence repeat shot placement is no problem even with shaky nervous hands, and there are more and as I remember them I will keep adding but these are the main reasons I ALWAYS carry .22 with me.
@AK47 - Sir, mine is reliable, I have found some out there unreliable, BUT most I have stumbled upon have been very reliable. btw, my Buckmark nor my Ruger jammed EVER... NEVER.

American Lockpicker
13-02-2013, 09:45 AM
Remington Yellow Jacket ammo is nice but I prefer the Viper(solid version of that round.)

arawan
13-02-2013, 12:57 PM
Thank you Moeen sb,
I have the same experience with .22lr rifle (Voere, Made in Austria). The rifle fired thousands of rounds since 1985 and I could not remember any FTF or FTE. I know, this is exceptional one as I could not get the same reliability with my CZ511 (.22lr Rifle).
Here, I feel agreed with the argument "Carrying a lighter one is better than carrying nothing". So, I am thinking to get a .22 Mag revolver for occasional carry (I have been using Makarov for my primary SD ).

AK47
14-02-2013, 01:53 AM
Thanks Moeen bro. I get it from your repeated stressing "MY" piece, that you have a good piece, but that you're not sure about it in general? Let me ask you the question another way, since you've a vast experience with all handguns and a large network of friends with many more. Have you seen friend's, shooting pal's pieces of Walther P-22 jam out of the way, means apart from the very occasional one like 1-2 in a hundred rounds?

Regards.

Moeen
14-02-2013, 03:35 PM
Salam All,
@AK47 - I have had about 9 p22 pieces come and go through my hands out of which two were prone to occasional jams. The others ate up everything.

.50CAL
14-02-2013, 04:31 PM
No doubt about it that the Ruger is best .22 handgun by any category.&nbsp;<span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); background-color: rgb(250, 250, 250); ">Walther PPK .22lr and Walther P22 are great too. but the problem with&nbsp;</span><span style="background-color: rgb(250, 250, 250); "><font color="#333333">Walther P22 it's a very ammo&nbsp;sensitive. most the .22 doesn't cycle properly. One of the main problem is with .22lr is they have not been market properly either none of them are made with passion. i'm including both guns &amp; ammo. if they really wanted to make things better they really need step up all things. But since .22 ammo is harder to make and there main targets were, are and always been military and&nbsp;law enforcements so they rather work on a caliber that is easy to manufacture &amp; market. The .22LR is more lethal than the average calibers like 9mm.<br><br>Just imagine that every one in a (A) house carries .22. the total number of house hold are 10. out of those 10 people 6 are children under the age of 18, parents over age of 50 and your self &amp; wife.<br>Second (B) House</font></span><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); background-color: rgb(250, 250, 250); ">&nbsp;carries 9mm, 40, 45 acp, 44 &amp; so on. the total number of house hold are 10.&nbsp;</span><span style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); background-color: rgb(250, 250, 250); ">out of those 10 people 6 are children under the age of 18, parents over age of 50 and your self &amp; wife.<br></span><span style="background-color: rgb(250, 250, 250); "><font color="#333333"><br>House A have more advantage than the house B if they go under attack. Agree ? Yes<br><br>Because house A have 10 people who can shoot on the other hand house B have only 1 person who can shoot great &amp; rest of them don't because of the recoil, blast noise &amp; weight.&nbsp;<br></font></span><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">The first quarter of a new year is always exciting for shooting enthusiasts as the<font color="#ce181e"><span style="-webkit-transition: 0.6s;">&nbsp;</span></font><font color="#ce181e"><span style="-webkit-transition: 0.6s;">new guns are announced and shipped</span></font><a href="http://www.gunsandammo.com/gas-shot-show-2012-coverage/" target="_blank"></a>&nbsp;to dealers. Some years a particular, trend or theme will rise to the forefront of the industry’s media coverage. In 2010, the market enjoyed a surge in new pocket-sized .380 semi-auto pistols. For 2011, .380 pocket pistols were trumped by a blitz of 9mm pocket rockets and we celebrated the<font color="#ce181e"><span style="-webkit-transition: 0.6s;">&nbsp;</span></font><font color="#ce181e"><span style="-webkit-transition: 0.6s;">birth of the 1911</span></font><a href="http://www.gunsandammo.com/tag/1911/" target="_blank"></a>. For 2012, a first look at the playing field revealed a variety of new guns to be released but not the headline-grabbing patterns of recent years. Upon closer examination, one particular caliber has plenty of new additions to get shooters out to the range: the .22 long rifle.</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">Why does the .22 have such a loyal following? Why does the selection of handguns and rifles chambered for this round continue to grow? When I started asking folks in the industry this question, they looked at me in a funny way. Why not ask the reason people prefer to eat on a daily basis or why they like to go shooting at all?</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">But this seemingly obvious question bears asking for good reasons. For all intents and purposes, the .22 long rifle should be obsolete. How many other black powder cartridges developed in 1887, with a family tree going back to 1845, have made the transition into the modern era? And of that handful of calibers, how many are stocked and sold by the thousands at local big-box and sporting goods stores? The rimfire primer system is obsolete, the round is not particularly powerful by today’s standards, and it’s actually a relatively complicated round to construct. So what’s all the excitement about?</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">Whatever weaknesses this cartridge may possess, they are almost universally overshadowed in light of the round’s positive characteristics. A few industry representatives from both sides of the .22 aisle, the gun makers and the ammunition manufacturers, shared with me their customers’ reasons for sending .22 rounds down range on a regular basis.</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">The single most quoted reason for the .22’s popularity? It’s cheap. Nothing speaks to the cost conscious shooter like the bottom line. Although all ammunition prices have gone up significantly in the last few years, you can still buy 500 rounds of bulk .22 cartridges for the same price as, or less than, a 50-round box of centerfire pistol or 20-round box of big-bore rifle rounds. This low per-round cost allows shooters to literally get more bangs for their buck, which translates to more actual trigger time.</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">A high customer demand allows manufacturers to keep the .22 ammunition supply plentiful and diverse. Few calibers offer as many bullet and power variations as this little rimfire. Another benefit of buying .22 is that many of these firearms cost less than their full-caliber counterparts.</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">If reducing the cost of both the ammunition and the gun is not enough incentive, then consider the reduction in noise and recoil. This is a big part of the fun factor of .22. Shooters can enjoy all of the satisfaction of hitting the target without the shoulder, wrist, or back pain that comes with long sessions at the shooting range with large-caliber guns. Reduced recoil also makes the .22 ideal for training new and young shooters. The .22 produces enough energy to make it good for small game hunting. The bullets are capable of dispatching the game without too much damage to the meat.</p><p style="margin-top: 1em; margin-bottom: 1em; line-height: 24px; font-family: georgia; color: rgb(49, 49, 49); ">Whatever your reasons for choosing to own a .22, this gun and ammunition combination is far from becoming an endangered species. In fact, with recent ammunition shortages and continuing high prices still in the collective shooting consciousness, it’s likely that .22s are going to be as popular this year as ever, if not more so.<br><br><p style="margin-bottom: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; ">This is the second post in my Trends in Self Defense series. (The first one was:&nbsp;<font color="#772124">Trends in Self Defense, Part 1: Guns as a Force Equalizer</font><a href="http://gunssavelives.net/blog/trends-in-self-defense-part-1-guns-as-a-force-equalizer/"></a>)</p><p style="margin-bottom: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; ">In this article we’re going to reinforce the first rule of a gunfight: “Have a gun.”</p><p style="margin-bottom: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; ">While the .22lr is far from the ideal choice for self defense, it does have several things going for it.</p><ul style="list-style: none; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; "><li style="margin: 5px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 0px 0px 17px; display: block; background-image: url(http://gunssavelives.net/wp-content/themes/vigilance/images/list-item.gif); background-position: 0px 6px; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; "><strong>Cost</strong>: Guns chambered in .22lr tend to cost a good bit less than their full power counterparts. Ammo is a fraction of the cost of centerfire ammo, which allows for far more practice for someone on a tight&nbsp;budget</li><li style="margin: 5px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 0px 0px 17px; display: block; background-image: url(http://gunssavelives.net/wp-content/themes/vigilance/images/list-item.gif); background-position: 0px 6px; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; "><strong>Recoil</strong>: The recoil of a .22lr is very light, even in small pistols. This allows for people that are recoil sensitive, or have weak grips due to age or injury to get quicker follow up shots</li><li style="margin: 5px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 0px 0px 17px; display: block; background-image: url(http://gunssavelives.net/wp-content/themes/vigilance/images/list-item.gif); background-position: 0px 6px; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; "><strong>Availability</strong>: You can find .22lr ammo virtually anywhere ammo is sold</li><li style="margin: 5px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 0px 0px 17px; display: block; background-image: url(http://gunssavelives.net/wp-content/themes/vigilance/images/list-item.gif); background-position: 0px 6px; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; "><strong>More deadly than you think</strong>: According to at least&nbsp;<font color="#772124">this study</font><a href="http://www.buckeyefirearms.org/node/7866" target="_blank"></a>, .22lr has more stopping power than you think</li><li style="margin: 5px 0px 0px; padding: 0px 0px 0px 17px; display: block; background-image: url(http://gunssavelives.net/wp-content/themes/vigilance/images/list-item.gif); background-position: 0px 6px; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat; "><strong>Reliability:</strong>&nbsp;While a centerfire round is always going to be more reliable than a rimfire, modern advances in rimfire technology, including better powder, have made modern rimfire ammunition nearly as reliable as centerfire. This is assuming of course that you are using a premium brand of ammo, not bulk pack.</li></ul><p style="margin-bottom: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; ">Am I telling everyone to leave your 9mm’s and .45acp’s at the house and get a .22 pocket pistol? Absolutely yes.&nbsp;</p><p style="margin-bottom: 10px; color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: Georgia, 'Times New Roman', Times, serif; line-height: 27px; text-align: left; ">In all of the following stories an attack was successfully stopped with a weapon chambered in .22lr. Note that in a couple of cases the mere presence of the firearm was enough to end the incident.<br><br>.22 was the most popular caliber used in 2012. There must be a reason for it.&nbsp;</p></p>

AK47
15-02-2013, 12:27 AM
Salam All,
@AK47 - I have had about 9 p22 pieces come and go through my hands out of which two were prone to occasional jams. The others ate up everything.

Lolz! I 'm not giving up on you. Ok, let me put it straight forward: Next time you have 1 of these which eat up everything, means EVERYTHING of .22 LR, kindly do me a favor and call me up for a cup of coffee & gup and a quick "hand over", would love to have a reliable P-22 souvenir item item from a best, dear friend, that bangs every time. Seriously.

Regards.

Denovo87
15-02-2013, 09:01 AM
Lolz! I 'm not giving up on you. Ok, let me put it straight forward: Next time you have 1 of these which eat up everything, means EVERYTHING of .22 LR, kindly do me a favor and call me up for a cup of coffee & gup and a quick "hand over", would love to have a reliable P-22 souvenir item item from a best, dear friend, that bangs every time. Seriously.

Regards.

In your dreams AK bro:) even John Moses Browning hands me over one I will refuse to accept as "a .22lr semi auto pistol capable of eating everything". We need to change .22lr round to un-rimmed case before we could find something .22lr sooo reliable cycling semi auto.

There can be less vs more ailing digestion system but there's nooooo .22lr pistol with perfect digestive system; if some one finds a piece I will request him to let me shoot only 100 rounds of my choice before I could change my belief ;)

I personally like to carry a .22lr or wmr gun but will never go semi auto way; revolvers my brother, if one need extremely reliable rimmed cartridge gun.

s.cheema
15-02-2013, 09:18 AM
nice share

AK47
15-02-2013, 11:01 PM
@Denovo bro..................Lolz! Let Moeen bro come forth on this, he seems to have a pretty fair amount of confidence in the rimmed caliber for SD carry.

As for the revolver option, well, pulling the 12 Lbs trigger or so each time, I'm sure the gross benefit of low recoiled .22 will be pretty much counter balanced for the worse. Especially in quick successive, multiple shots. I believe, if you've to pull it hard, better do it with a hard-hitting .357 and get the job done in fewer shots.

Hmm! Now, where is this taking us, to the .22 TCM, lol!

Regards.

Marker
16-02-2013, 05:06 AM
In your dreams AK bro:) even John Moses Browning hands me over one I will refuse to accept as "a .22lr semi auto pistol capable of eating everything". We need to change .22lr round to un-rimmed case before we could find something .22lr sooo reliable cycling semi auto.

Denovo has hit the nail on the head in this paragraph.22LR cartridge and all guns are fun to shoot as far as plinking goes. Due to primer in the rim it will be always a questionable round for reliability. Quality improvements in past decades made this round very affordable and still plenty available in the markets all around the world. Here is my take.

Whenever my kids are home we take a bulk box (over 550) to the range and just shoot. Do I get duds, oh yeah. Do I discard them or throw them? Hell no. I rotate them and shoot them either on 2nd or 3rd try. I do that since I got plenty of time.

Does this scenario qualifies 22LR to be my self defense cartridge. Absolutely NOT.Guys, I got only one life, and I want to protect it with everything best available for me. 22LR does not fall in best for me. Now, if this is all I got, then it is something better than nothing. And trust me, don't underestimate this little bullet, it can be lethal if placed correctly. Seen many people getting hurt thinking that it is not.

If you want a potent and small cartridge, my suggestion would be to go for 9X18 Mak, I carry it everyday and feels like part of my body. Pretty powerful bullet in small cartridge and does the job forcefully.

Picture of this little gun on my collection page. I never had to draw yet in real time and hope to have it same way but I do shoot a magazine during my range trip. By the way, disagreements are always welcome!!!

doc pistol
16-02-2013, 04:03 PM
Denovo has hit the nail on the head in this paragraph.22LR cartridge and all guns are fun to shoot as far as plinking goes. Due to primer in the rim it will be always a questionable round for reliability. Quality improvements in past decades made this round very affordable and still plenty available in the markets all around the world. Here is my take.

Whenever my kids are home we take a bulk box (over 550) to the range and just shoot. Do I get duds, oh yeah. Do I discard them or throw them? Hell no. I rotate them and shoot them either on 2nd or 3rd try. I do that since I got plenty of time.

Does this scenario qualifies 22LR to be my self defense cartridge. Absolutely NOT.Guys, I got only one life, and I want to protect it with everything best available for me. 22LR does not fall in best for me. Now, if this is all I got, then it is something better than nothing. And trust me, don't underestimate this little bullet, it can be lethal if placed correctly. Seen many people getting hurt thinking that it is not.

If you want a potent and small cartridge, my suggestion would be to go for 9X18 Mak, I carry it everyday and feels like part of my body. Pretty powerful bullet in small cartridge and does the job forcefully.

Picture of this little gun on my collection page. I never had to draw yet in real time and hope to have it same way but I do shoot a magazine during my range trip. By the way, disagreements are always welcome!!!

how bout 7.65 "32cal" among smaller cartridges for sd,,,,,i have it in walther ppk:drama:

Marker
16-02-2013, 08:08 PM
how bout 7.65 "32cal" among smaller cartridges for sd,,,,,i have it in walther ppk:drama:

I think it is another good choice. My father carried it all the times. Walther PPK is a very good CC design. My Hungarian PA-63 is about size of PPK and is 80% Aluminum which makes it very light and was about half the price of PPK.

Moeen
16-02-2013, 08:23 PM
Salam All,
I also have a Walther PPK in .22. The problem most run into here is OLD ammo in .22lr. Take the new Federal rounds imported in the plastic 100round box, they work flawlessly. Same goes for the old Winchester SuperX in the Grey and red box. The best out there are the CCIs, have yet to see any of them fail.

arawan
16-02-2013, 09:17 PM
Salam All,
I also have a Walther PPK in .22. The problem most run into here is OLD ammo in .22lr. Take the new Federal rounds imported in the plastic 100round box, they work flawlessly. Same goes for the old Winchester SuperX in the Grey and red box. The best out there are the CCIs, have yet to see any of them fail.

+1, My experience also says, most of .22lr are actually expired ones which have been imported @ very low prices. One of the main reason for .22lr failures.
But in any case, the rule is same (IMHO), "Carrying a lighter one is better than carrying nothing"

doc pistol
16-02-2013, 11:48 PM
Salam All,
I also have a Walther PPK in .22. The problem most run into here is OLD ammo in .22lr. Take the new Federal rounds imported in the plastic 100round box, they work flawlessly. Same goes for the old Winchester SuperX in the Grey and red box. The best out there are the CCIs, have yet to see any of them fail.

as far as my limited knowledge regarding 22lr says,,,, the main issue with most of 22lr handguns is that they are ammo speciffic, if one tries several brands on his 22lr one is bound to find the right cartridge which will give 100% performance.
@moeen as far as all the 22lr that ate whatever u fed them.... hmmmmmmmm .... quite wise of the guns to behave themselves with u

.50CAL
17-02-2013, 06:03 PM
Few problems with the .22lr ammo.

1. People buy expired ammo
2. People buy a very old stock
3. People buy cheap price ammo in .22 on top of that.
4. People store ammo the wrong way
5. Dealers store ammo the wrong way & Moisture builds up.
6. Some manufactures make cheap quality ammo with a small shelf life.


People with .22lr weapon normally choose a good quality ammo whether it's for hunting or target practicing. Some people (i call them cheap dumb ass) who buy a .22lr weapon and choose the cheapest ammo they can find to shoot & then they either blame the caliber or the weapon.

First of all if you look at other calibers which normally used for SDC. They are .22,10,30,32,38,9mm,40,44,45. Out of these calibers the .22lr is the cheapest caliber around the world. Now even after selecting the cheapest caliber, these people then move on to the cheapest manufactures when it comes to buying ammo. WTF?

Most of the .22lr ammo you find at the dealers carry between 3 to 5 years old storing the ammo wrong way & Moisture gets to them. Check your local dealer when your buying your next ammo. check the manufactures date & shipped date. You see what i'm talking about. If you don't find one well than you know what i'm talking about. Dealers buy ammo at a cheap price specially if the ammo is really old or expired. Some of the boxes that i bought 20 years ago & i have fired few of the ammo from those boxes worked 100%. Some of us buy weapons just to show off, it doesn't work like that. Weapons care & safety handling only works with passion. If you don't have the passion for guns you rather protect your self with a broom stick than a gun.

Over the years i have used .22lr & sen it evolved more than any other caliber in my life & i found it to be the best caliber for my self & family. They are good with short & long distance as well and i don't have to switch back & forth with other calibers depending on my situation. I'm arguing regarding the false reputation & bad marketing of the .22lr. No matter how small, big Or strong you are, you will always response to the recoil from the 30,32,38,9mm,40,44 & 45. But not with .22lr which gives everyone a advantage to shoot on target.

Marker
17-02-2013, 08:31 PM
Brother .50CAL, are you saying that ammo is like cough syrup with expiry date and limited shelf life? Please enlighten us with proof and data.

The fundamental difference between a rimfire and centerfire cartridge is topic here. Please refrain from rude comments in your posts. We may not be as experienced as you but are willing to listen unbiased, unemotional and logical perspective.

Usama
17-02-2013, 09:29 PM
Agreed with Marker ..
I have found 40 grainer ammo better then 36 grams ones with all .22lr rifles or handguns i have used so far , in terms of reliable cycling..

doc pistol
17-02-2013, 11:24 PM
Few problems with the .22lr ammo.

1. People buy expired ammo
2. People buy a very old stock
3. People buy cheap price ammo in .22 on top of that.
4. People store ammo the wrong way
5. Dealers store ammo the wrong way & Moisture builds up.
6. Some manufactures make cheap quality ammo with a small shelf life.


People with .22lr weapon normally choose a good quality ammo whether it's for hunting or target practicing. Some people (i call them cheap dumb ass) who buy a .22lr weapon and choose the cheapest ammo they can find to shoot & then they either blame the caliber or the weapon.

First of all if you look at other calibers which normally used for SDC. They are .22,10,30,32,38,9mm,40,44,45. Out of these calibers the .22lr is the cheapest caliber around the world. Now even after selecting the cheapest caliber, these people then move on to the cheapest manufactures when it comes to buying ammo. WTF?

Most of the .22lr ammo you find at the dealers carry between 3 to 5 years old storing the ammo wrong way & Moisture gets to them. Check your local dealer when your buying your next ammo. check the manufactures date & shipped date. You see what i'm talking about. If you don't find one well than you know what i'm talking about. Dealers buy ammo at a cheap price specially if the ammo is really old or expired. Some of the boxes that i bought 20 years ago & i have fired few of the ammo from those boxes worked 100%. Some of us buy weapons just to show off, it doesn't work like that. Weapons care & safety handling only works with passion. If you don't have the passion for guns you rather protect your self with a broom stick than a gun.

Over the years i have used .22lr & sen it evolved more than any other caliber in my life & i found it to be the best caliber for my self & family. They are good with short & long distance as well and i don't have to switch back & forth with other calibers depending on my situation. I'm arguing regarding the false reputation & bad marketing of the .22lr. No matter how small, big Or strong you are, you will always response to the recoil from the 30,32,38,9mm,40,44 & 45. But not with .22lr which gives everyone a advantage to shoot on target.

I didnt know Winchester was cheap ammo, thats all ive ever used, also to note that in our market 22lr is hardly found in any cheap or substandard brands,,,,,,,,22LR related problems are reported all over the world in almost every forum, now u cant say they all are cheap dumb a## ( or maybe u might )... there is no doubt it is one of the most controvercial calibres

.50CAL
18-02-2013, 01:19 AM
Brother .50CAL, are you saying that ammo is like cough syrup with expiry date and limited shelf life? Please enlighten us with proof and data.

The fundamental difference between a rimfire and centerfire cartridge is topic here. Please refrain from rude comments in your posts. We may not be as experienced as you but are willing to listen unbiased, unemotional and logical perspective.


I don't know how long you been into guns but sorry to say this, you have a very limited & narrow knowledge about these things. If someone doesn't know about something, the best way to ask is the polite way not the harsh way. There was nothing rude about the comment i added. I was not pointing my comment to anybody here specifically.

Here is your Proof:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates to ammunition, particularly to primers, and more particularly to the use of an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML) as the primary chemical initiator in order to control the usable life-time of cartridges and detonators for explosives.

Cartridge primers, are the initial explosive train component in ammunition consisting of a cartridge case, propellant, and projectile. Cartridge primers generally consist of a thin metal cup, a metal anvil, and an explosive protected by foil and sealed with lacquer. The explosive or primary initiator is a shock-sensitive material such as fulminate of mercury, potassium chlorate, or lead styphnate. Lead styphnate has been used as the primary initiator in primers for the past fifty years. These cartridge primers have a virtually unlimited shelf-life. It is not surprising that the performance and reliability of ammunition that has been stored properly for more than fifty years is indistinguishable from new ammunition. Hence, ammunition manufactured with primers using modern chemical initiators can be expected to remain functional indefinitely. This quality is essential to the stockpiling of ammunition required by the military. However, this quality also creates a potentially dangerous situation because it allows anyone to stockpile large quantities of ammunition without any anticipated legitimate use. Subversive individuals and groups are therefore able to "out-gun" law enforcement personnel attempting to execute lawful search and arrest warrants because of the nearly endless amount of ammunition that can be expended from a fortified position in an armed conflict.

Recently, there have been efforts to impose increasingly stricter gun-control measures by state and federal legislatures, as well as a call for "safer bullets" by the U.S. Surgeon General, in order to reduce the occurrence of violent crime. The effectiveness of new gun control legislation is the subject of much debate due to loop-holes in the laws and, perhaps, more importantly, the number of firearms already owned by the general public (estimated to be as high as 200 million firearms nationwide). There is a need for alternate methods of reducing the occurrence of gun related violence, such as controlling the availability of ammunition. One method of controlling the availability of ammunition that has been suggested is to limit its usable service-life. It is generally accepted that limiting the shelf-life of the primer is the most efficient method of controlling the usable service life of ammunition, because the complexity of the primer makes it the most difficult cartridge component to duplicate or replace.

While prior efforts have been contemplated to reduce the long shelf-life problem, no solution has yet been found. For example, one of the largest suppliers of primers to the ammunition reloader, CCI, has stated, "On the shelf life issue, our chemists have decades of experience in designing chemical initiators, and they know of no way to `kill` a primer after two years that won't kill it tomorrow. The chemical technology to limit shelf life simply does not exist. Primer shelf life is measured in decades (see Shooting Times/September 1994, "Precision Reloading" by Rick Jamison, pp. 28-32 and 35).

The present invention fills the above-mentioned needs by providing a method of controlling the availability of ammunition by limiting the functional shelf-life of the primer, and thus offers an alternate and simple method of reducing the occurrence of firearms-related violence.

.50CAL
18-02-2013, 01:20 AM
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

It is an object of the present invention to provide a method for effectively controlling the shelf-life of ammunition.

A further object of the invention is to provide cartridge primers with a limited functional shelf-life.

A further object of this invention is to limit the functional life of ammunition by controlling the shelf-life of the primer.

Another object of the invention is to provide a cartridge primer with a primary initiator explosive material composed of an inorganic reactive multilayer.

Another object of the invention is to use the time-limited explosive properties of the inorganic reactive multilayer to control the functional shelf-life detonators used to initiate explosives.

Another object of the invention is to provide a Boxer type cartridge primer having a metal cup, a metal anvil, and a primary initiator that is a time-limited explosive composed of an inorganic reactive multilayer material.

Another object of the invention is to prevent extension of shelf-life of a primary initiator containing an inorganic reactive multilayer material by adding a quantity of material that has a change at low temperature including one of: a destructive phase change, a thermal contraction change, and an internal stress change.

Another object of the invention is to provide an explosive detonator or cartridge primer that uses an inorganic reactive multilayer to ignite the standard chemical initiators used in commercially available detonators and primers.

Another object of the invention is to provide methods for fabricating limited-life cartridge primers wherein the functional service life of the primer can be predetermined by the structural design and material composition selected for the inorganic reactive multilayer (RML) used as the primary initiator.

Another object of this invention is to provide a design for a primer using a RML that can be initiated electrically with the spark from a low-voltage battery.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following description and accompanying drawing. Basically, the present invention comprises a primer that utilizes a primary initiator or explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time. The primary initiator or explosive is a synthetic inorganic material consisting of many layers of reactive elements, such as titanium-boron. The detonation or ignition sensitivity of these reactive multilayer materials is attributed to the interfacial energy stored in the metastable structure. The ignition sensitivity of the reactive multilayer degrades with time because interdiffusion of atoms reduces the excess energy stored at the layer interfaces. Thus, the usable life-time of the primer can be determined by the proper selection of the reacting elements and the design of the multilayer structure.

Limiting the shelf-life of a cartridge primer as described in this invention is accomplished by using a new type of primary initiator. The shock-sensitive chemical initiator used in the limited-life cartridge-primers is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). An RML is a synthetic material with a modulated structure consisting of many thin layers of reactive elements such as boron and titanium. The combustion properties of a reactive multilayer such as energy and reactivity are primarily determined by the selection of reacting elements. The shock-sensitivity of an RML is a result of the metastable interface structure between reacting layers and the thickness of the layers. Reacting multilayers are generally synthesized by a vacuum coating process such as sputtering; consequently, these properties can be controlled by modifying its modulated structure.

Unlike the explosives currently used as the chemical initiator in primers, the shock-sensitive reactivity of a RML changes with time because interdiffusion of atoms reduces the excess energy stored at the metastable interfaces. The rate of this process is unique for a particular combination of elements, and the net result is that atoms tend to migrate from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration. The change in the rate of atomic diffusion with temperature is known to follow an Arrhenius relationship, whereby the diffusion rate is proportional to the exponential of temperature. The time period when a RML will function as a shock-sensitive explosive can be determined and controlled by selecting a combination of elements with appropriate diffusion characteristics. The primary initiators currently used in commercial cartridge primers have metastable molecular structures that do not change by a simple atomic diffusion process; consequently, they do not exhibit this predictable change in reactivity.

This invention includes two basic designs for limited-life cartridge primers that use reactive multilayers as the primary chemical initiator. The first design simply replaces the chemical initiator with a comparable amount of RML in the standard Boxer primer. The second design is a modified version of the Boxer primer that uses a small amount of RML to ignite a standard chemical initiator. The later design would minimize both increases in manufacturing costs related to materials and changes in primer performance.

This invention also includes a design for a new primer using a RML that can be initiated electrically with the spark from a nine volt battery.

.50CAL
18-02-2013, 01:20 AM
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated into and form a part of the disclosure, illustrate embodiments of the invention and, together with the description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.

FIG. 1A illustrates in cross-section the components of a prior art cartridge primer.

FIG. 1B illustrates the FIG. 1A cartridge primer modified with RML in accordance with the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a partial enlarged view of a three material reactive multilayer made in accordance with the invention.

FIG. 3A and 3B are greatly enlarged views of a two material reactive multilayer, with FIG. 3B including a substrate on which the multilayers are deposited.

FIG. 4 illustrates schematically the construction of a vacuum coating system capable of fabricating both the two and three material reactive multilayers of FIG. 2 and FIG. 3A-3B.

FIG. 5 illustrates in cross-section the construction of a primer using a combination of RML and a commercial chemical explosive as the primary initiator.

FIG. 6 illustrates in cross-section the construction of a cartridge with a primer using a combination of RML and a commercial chemical explosive as the primary initiator that can be detonated electronically with a spark from a low-voltage battery.

FIG. 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of a section of the FIG. 6 cartridge primer.

FIG. 8 is a schematic view of an electrical activator for cartridge primer of FIGS. 6-7.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention involves a simple and effective method of controlling the availability of ammunition by controlling the shelf life of the primer or detonator. It involves replacing the shock-sensitive organic explosive used in cartridge primers, for example, with an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML) that functions as an explosive for a limited period of time. RML's are modulated structures consisting of very thin (1 to 1000 nm) alternating layers of two or more reactive elements and/or inorganic compounds, such as titanium-boron (Ti--B), titanium-silicon (Ti--Si), nickel-silicon (Ni--Si), beryllium-carbon (Be--C), and aluminum-platinum (Al--Pt); or three material alternating layers of reactive elements and an inorganic compound, such as titanium-carbon-copper oxide (Ti-C-CuO), aluminum-carbon-copper oxide (Al-C-CuO), and beryllium-carbon-copper oxide (Be-C-CuO). Individual layer thicknesses of RML designs can vary from less than one nanometer (nm) to more than several micrometers (μm). RML's are generally prepared by vacuum deposition processes. The energy stored in the large number of metastable layer interfaces (100s to 10,000) is responsible for their unusual sensitivity to reaction.

RML's have energy densities comparable to organo-metallic initiator explosives, such as lead styphnate, and RML's are essentially unaffected by moisture or solvents. However, time-dependent interdiffusion of the elements occurring at the layer interfaces in the RML reduces stored energy and reactivity. The interdiffusion process is a function of time at temperature and is a characteristic of the material composition of the multilayer. Consequently, the reacting elements and inorganic compounds and the individual layer thicknesses can be designed to determine the time at ambient conditions that a RML will function as an initiator-type explosive. The reaction products of RML's are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike most commercial primers that contain lead compounds, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment.

The storage temperature can have a significant effect on the expected performance life-time of a life-limited cartridge primer (LLCP) due to the temperature dependent interdiffusion of the reacting elements in the RML. Previous studies performed using various different multilayer combinations have determined that interlayer growth obeys a square-root time-dependence, suggesting that interlayer growth is diffusion-limited. It is this property of multilayers that leads to, over a period of time at temperature, an intermixed structure which is eventually no longer capable of reacting explosively. The amount of intermixing within the RML, after a given storage time, can be related to a quantity known as the interdiffusion coefficient. Empirically it is found that the interdiffusion coefficient is a function of temperature and a quantity known as the activation energy of interdiffusion. Previous studies on RML's have reported activation energies of from 0.3 to 3.0 eV, suggesting large variations in thermal stability at ambient temperatures depending upon the magnitude of the activation energy. Assuming that the LLCP's would be subjected to storage temperature extremes of 0° to 50° C., and assuming also that the corresponding maximum and minimum shelf-life extremes are selected as 5 years and 6 months, respectively, then the requisite RML activation energy would be within the range of experimentally reported values and, hence, achievable using existing material combinations.

The shelf-life of a LLCP could be extended indefinitely by storing them at temperatures significantly below ambient, where interdiffusion of the elements is very slow. However, this method of extending the functional life-time of the LLCP is prevented in this invention by incorporating a material in the multilayer structure that exhibits at least one of the following characteristics: 1) a destructive phase change at low temperatures, such as displayed with pure tin; 2) a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) that differs significantly from the primer cup and/or RML; or 3) internal or residual stress rendering the structure mechanically unstable with respect to changes in temperature. For example, pure tin when cooled to 13.2° C., transforms from the beta phase with a diamond-cubic crystal structure to the alpha phase with a body-centered tetragonal crystal structure. In the past, this transformation was referred to as "Tin-Pest" because the silver-metallic beta-Sn would crumble into a gray dust. Adding a pure tin layer to the base of the RML or incorporating a layer of pure tin in the RML structure will cause the RML to disintegrate (by the first-named characteristic) at temperatures below the phase transformation temperature. Consequently, a LLCP containing a RML with a pure tin layer would not function at ambient temperatures if it had been previously stored at temperatures below the transformation temperature, or adding a layer with a CTE that differs significantly from the primer cup and/or RML will cause the layer to delaminate from the primer cup and/or RML at temperatures significantly below ambient. Similarly, an additional layer with high residual stresses would also be subject to mechanical failure (de-lamination) at temperatures significantly below ambient.

Limited-life cartridge primers (LLCP's) using RML's of this invention would allow the manufacture of ammunition that would remain functional for a limited, predetermined period of time. This would enable the government to restrict the ability civilians would have to stockpile large quantities of ammunition, thereby impeding the ability of subversives to engage in protracted armed conflict with law enforcement. This would also reduce occurrences of accidental shootings by children encountering long-since forgotten, loaded firearms. The use of LLCP's would have only minimal effects on citizens involved in law-abiding activities such as target shooting and hunting. Ammunition would have to be purchased at more frequent intervals (e.g., annually) for legitimate planned or anticipated uses. This would lead to increased commercial profits (as well as increased potential tax revenues) generated from the additional sales required to replace non-functional ammunition.

The limited-life primer of this invention could improve the long-term safety of commercial explosives other than ammunition primers, such as detonators and blasting caps, by restricting their functional lifetime. Thus, accidents caused, for example, by children playing with detonators or blasting caps discovered many years later in prior blasting areas, could be reduced or eliminated entirely.

The limited-life cartridge primers, utilizing RML's as the explosive material can be fabricated, for example, by three (3) methods that are compatible with existing primer manufacturing technology. In one method, the appropriate RML can be directly deposited in the cup portion of the primer assembly by vacuum coating techniques (i.e., sputtering, evaporation), described in detail hereinafter. In another method, the RML can be fabricated in a separate process, converted into a powder, and used in place of the standard organic initiator explosive, as set forth below. In this method the RML material can be made by processes other than atomic deposition such as cold-rolling elemental ribbons into a multilayer structure. In another method small pre-formed shapes can be cut from the RML foils or RML films deposited on thin aluminum foil, for example, and placed directly into the primer cups, with details set forth below. Experiments utilizing this latter method have shown that detonation of the RML causes the aluminum foil to combust thereby increasing the energy released in the explosion.

As utilized herein, the term foil is defined as free-standing substrate or member, while the term film is defined as a thin coating (single or multiple layer) deposited on a foil or substrate. The film (single layer or multilayer) may in some instances be removed from the foil or substrate after deposition and thus be free-standing.

An embodiment of a prior art Boxer type cartridge primer is illustrated in FIG. 1A, and basically comprises a cup 1 within which is located an explosive mixture 2, a foil or paper 3, and an anvil 4. The primer of FIG. 1A is modified as shown in FIG. 1B by replacing the explosive mixture 2 with an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML) 5, as seen in FIGS. 2 and 3A (with or without the foil 3 of FIG. 1A); and/or with powder 6 from an inorganic reactive multilayer, and which may or may not utilize the foil 3. A thin (0.5 to 2.0 μm) layer 7 of pure tin, for example, is position in cup 1, but can be added to the RML 5.

Prior to a detailed description of the three element multilayer (FIG. 2) and the two element multilayer (FIGS. 3A and 3B), there is a basic difference these two types of RML's. The three (3) element RML is an explosive which produces a working fluid or expanding gas (i.e., CO) and high temperature, and such is described and claimed in copending U.S. application Ser. No. 08/120,407, filed Sep. 13, 1993, entitled "Nano-Engineered Explosives", and assigned to the same assignee. The two (2) element RML produces high temperature, but no expanding gas. Both types of RML's can effectively ignite a cartridge powder charge, as shown in the FIGS. 6 and 7 embodiment. A two element RML is simpler and less expensive to fabricate. Both the three element and two element RML's can be fabricated utilizing the apparatus of FIG. 4, but with different operational sequences. The multilayers of FIGS. 2 and 3A-3B may include material, such as pure tin, that has a destructive phase change at low temperatures. It may be possible to utilize other material than tin, which has a destructive phase change at low temperatures, such as by the addition of small amounts (less than 1 atom percent) of another material such as antimony. However, such has not been experimentally verified and may have adverse effects. Tin is the only thus far verified material.

FIG. 2 is an enlarged partial view of an embodiment of a three material reactive multilayer (RML) structure using a sequence of Ti--C--CuO layers, that will detonate and combust at high velocities generating a working fluid, such as carbon monoxide (CO), and high temperatures. This embodiment comprises a multilayer structure 5 of repeated submicron layers of titanium (Ti) and copper oxide (CuO), indicated at 8 and 9, with a submicron layer 10 of carbon (C) between each of the Ti layers 8 and CuO layers 9 to prevent unwanted passivation reactions. Each of the layers (8-10) having a thickness, for example, between 10 angstroms and one micrometer (10,000 Å). The number of layers in the structure 5 may vary from about 100 to 10,000, depending on the specific application. At least one layer 11 of tin may be added to the RLM 5 of FIG. 2. The tin is preferably pure tin with the layer thickness of 5000 Å. The layer 11 of tin may be located elsewhere in the multilayer or more than one layer of tin may be utilized.

The reaction of metals (i.e. Al, Ti, Be . . . ) with inorganic oxides (i.e. CuO, Fe2 O3 to produce Al2 O3 and Fe is referred to as a Thermite reaction. The reaction of Al metal and Fe2 O3 has long been used in metallurgical processes, such as welding.

The three material multilayer structure 5 of FIG. 2 may be fabricated by magnetron sputter depositing thin films of Ti, C, CuO, C, Ti, C, CuO, C etc. from individual magnetron sputtering sources onto a cooled surface or substrate that rotates under each source, such as illustrated in FIG. 4. Magnetron sputtering is a momentum transfer process that causes atoms to be ejected from the surface of a cathode or target material by bombardment of inert gas ions accelerated from a low pressure glow discharge. Magnetron sputtering is known in the art, as exemplified by U.S. Pat. No. 5,203,977 issued Apr. 20, 1993 to D. M. Makowiecki et al and U.S. Pat. No. 5,333,726 issued Aug. 2, 1994 to D. M. Makowiecki et al, and assigned to the same assignee. Thus a detailed description herein of a magnetron sputtering source and its operation is not deemed necessary.

The individual magnetron sources may be located and controlled such that the substrate is continuously rotated from one source to another using four (4) sources (i.e. Ti, C, CuO, C), or a three (3) magnetron assembly source may be used, and the substrate is rotated back and forth so as to provide sequential layers of Ti, C, CuO, Cu, Ti, C, etc.), as seen with respect to FIG. 4. A two magnetron source sputtering assembly is adequate for fabricating the two element RMLs.

Referring now to FIG. 4, a three source magnetron sputtering assembly is schematically illustrated, and which comprises a chamber 20 in which is located a rotating copper substrate table 21 provided with a substrate water cooling mechanism 22 having coolant inlet and outlets 23 and 24. Located and fixedly mounted above the rotating table 21 are three DC magnetrons 25, 26, and 27, equally spaced at 120° C., and being electrically negative, as indicated at 28. Each of the magnetrons 25, 26, and 27 is provided with water cooling inlets 29 and outlets 30. Located between each of the magnetrons 25-27 and the rotating table 21 is a cross contamination shield 31. Rotating table 21 is provided with an opening 32 in which is located a substrate 33 on which the thin films of reactive metal, carbon and oxide are deposited as the table 21 is rotated in opposite directions over the substrate 33 as indicated by the dash line and double arrow 34. The chamber 20 may include means, not shown, for providing a desired atmosphere for the sputtering operation, the type of atmosphere depending on the materials being sputtered.

In operation of the FIG. 4 assembly, and in conjunction with the above described embodiment, Magnetron 25 is indicated as a carbon (C) source, magnetron 26 as a Titanium (Ti) source, and magnetron 27 as a copper oxide (CuO) source. The table 21 is first rotated to the position shown, such that the substrate 33 is located beneath the CuO source 27 whereby a thin film (≥10 Å) 9 of CuO is deposited on substrate 33. The table 21 is then rotated so that the substrate 33 is located beneath the Ti source 26 whereby a thin film (≥10 Å) 8 of titanium is deposited on the CuO film 9. At this point, a second film of carbon may be deposited and/or the direction of rotation the table 21 reversed such that the substrate 33 is beneath carbon source 25, then back to the CuO source 27, then to the C source 25, then to Ti source 26, and so on until the desired number of layers of reactive metal, carbon and oxide are deposited on the substrate 33. After completion of the formation of the various layers on the substrate 33, the substrate may be removed, if desired, by polishing, etching, etc. as known in the art, to produce embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2.

While the above-exemplified fabrication process involved a Ti-C-CuO-C multilayer structure, the same sequence of steps using different magnetron sputter parameters, can be utilized to produce multilayer structures from other metal-carbon-oxide combinations, such as Al-C-CuO, Be-C-CuO, and Ti-Al-CuO, for example. Also, the multilayer structures of FIG. 2 can be highly stressed such that the multilayer structure disintegrate to produce a powder, such as shown at 6 in FIG. 1B. This is accomplished by adjusting the magnetron sputtering process parameters, especially the argon gas pressure, so as to produce a mechanically unstable multilayer film or foil.

While the three element multilayer of FIG. 2 can effectively actuate the cartridge primer, the two element multilayer described hereinafter with respect to FIGS. 3A and 3B is preferred because it is easier to fabricate and there is a larger selection of reactive elements, and the heat produced thereby is sufficient to actuate the primer.

FIG. 3A is an enlarged cross-sectional illustration of a two material or element multilayer (RML) structure 5' using a sequence of titanium-boron (Ti--B), for example, wherein the alternating layers 12 and 13 of titanium and boron have a thickness in the range of 2-20 nm and may be deposited on a layer 14 of pure tin. FIG. 3B is similar to FIG. 3A except that the alternating Ti and B layers are deposited via tin layer 14 on a substrate 15, such as aluminum foil, having a thickness of 5 μm to 50 μm. The aluminum foil could be replaced with a foil composed of Ti, Cu, or an organic polymer (i.e., polypropylene).

The two material multilayer structure 5' of FIG. 3A comprises alternating titanium layers 12 and boron layers 13 deposited on a layer of pure tin 14; and as shown in FIG. 3B the alternating titanium-boron layers 12-13 are deposited on an aluminum substrate or film 15 via a layer 14' of pure tin. The layers of tin 14 or 14' may be located elsewhere in the multilayer, and more than one layer of tin may be utilized.

The two material multilayer structure of FIGS. 3A or 3B can be produced in an apparatus similar to that of FIG. 4, but with the process parameter modified for the deposition of only two elements, such as titanium and boron. Each of the layers or titanium and boron may have a thickness in the range of 1 to 1000 nm (10-10,000 angstroms), and the number of layers may vary 100 to 10,000, depending on the interfacial energy desired for a specific application. In addition to the alternating layers of Ti and B, the RML may be, but not restricted to Ni--Al, Zr--B, Ta--B, Nb--B, B--C, Al--C, Ti--C, Hf--C, Ta--C, Si--C, Ti--Al, Li--B, Li--Al, and Ni--Ti.

Three specific methods for forming a Boxer style primer utilizing an inorganic reactive (Ti--B) multilayer (RML) explosive material in place of, or in conjunction with, a commercial chemical initiator are set forth hereinafter.

.50CAL
18-02-2013, 01:24 AM
I. LLCP Fabrication By Direct Deposition Method of the RML

The two element inorganic reactive multilayer, such as illustrated in FIG. 3A is directly deposited by magnetron sputtering of the elements into the cup portion 1 of a primer assembly, such as illustrated in FIG. 1B at 5. Generally, the layer 7 of pure tin would be deposited in the cup 1 prior to depositing the multilayer 5 thereinto. The following sets forth a specific example of a magnetron sputtering process for producing a two material multilayer film, foil, or coating composed of titanium-boron, for example, wherein the alternating layers of titanium and boron have a thickness in the range of 2-20 nm. The RML is fabricated in a vacuum coating system consisting of multiple magnetron sputtering sources and a rotating substrate table, such as illustrated in FIG. 4 modified for two material deposition.

1. Argon Sputter Gas Pressure: 3-15×10-3 Torr.

2. Substrate: cartridge cup.

3. Substrate Temperature: 30° C.

4. Substrate to Sputter Source Distance: 7 cm.

5. Sputter Power: Boron, 350-450 watts Rf; Titanium, 60-200 watts DC.

6. Substrate Rotation Speed: 0.1-1.0 RPM.

II. LLCP Fabrication by RML Replacement Method

The two element inorganic reactive multilayer material, such as illustrated in FIG. 3A, is formed by magnetron sputtering, as in Example I above or by other metallurgical processes such as cold-rolling elemental ribbons. The RML is than converted into a powder, and used in place of the standard organic initiator explosive in mixture 2 in FIG. 1A as indicated at 6 in FIG. 1B. The process of Example 1 sets forth a specific example of this process. The reduction of a foil to powder is a standard process in powder metallurgy and ceramic technology. Powder can be produced directly from an RML foil by modifying the sputter deposition process described in Example 1. This is accomplished by depositing the RML at sputter gas pressures below 3 mtorr or above 15 mtorr, thus producing a highly stressed foil that readily disintegrates into a powder. The other process parameters are the same as those given in Example I. While FIG. 1B illustrates both the RML 5 and the RML powder 6, in cup 1, as example only the cup 1 can contain RML 5 only or RML powder 6 only.

III. LLCP Fabrication by RML Foil Method

The two element inorganic reactive multilayer of FIG. 3B is formed as a free-standing foil by a process such as cold-rolling of elemental ribbons or as a film by magnetron sputtering the elements directly on to an aluminum foil. A pre-form is then cut from the free-standing foil or the coated aluminum foil and placed directly in the primer cup 1 of FIG. 1A to replace the explosive mixture 2, and thus replace the RML powder 6 and/or the RML 5 of FIG. 1B. The process described in Example 1 can be used to coat the aluminum foil with the RML and it sets forth a specific example of this process. Also, the substrate (aluminum foil) may be composed of titanium or copper or an organic polymer.

These three methods of fabricating limited-life cartridge primers replace the commercial chemical initiator (mixture 2 of FIG. 1A) currently used in the standard Boxer primer with a comparable amount of RML (components 5 and/or 6 of FIG. 1B). An alternate method of fabricating a LLCP involves the use of a small amount of RML to ignite the standard chemical initiator currently used in commercial primers. This method would require some modifications to the basic design of the Boxer primer. However, it would minimize both increases in manufacturing costs related to the RML materials and changes in primer performance. A modified Boxer primer design that would allow the RML to initiate a larger amount of commercial chemical explosive is illustrated in FIG. 5 wherein RML 5 and layer of tin 7 replaces a portion of the mixture 2 in cup 1. If desired the foil paper 3 of FIG. 1A can be utilized in FIG. 5 between the mixture 2 and anvil 4. The modification essentially involves removing the chemical explosive mixture from the firing-pin striking area of the primer between the anvil and the cup and replacing it with a tin layer and a RML foil. The modified Boxer type LLCP can be fabricated by the procedures set forth in Method I above.

FIGS. 6 and 7 illustrate an embodiment using an RML in a cartridge detonated electronically, with FIG. 7 being an enlarged view of a section of the FIG. 6 cartridge. As shown, a cartridge 40 includes a cavity 41 containing a powder charge 42, a primer, generally indication at 43, with a hole 44 interconnecting the cavity 41 and primer 43. The primer 43 includes an inverted large primer cup 45 having a bottom section 46 and wall section 47, a small primer cup 48 having a bottom section 49 and a wall section 50, an insulator 51 between wall sections 47 and 50, with small primer cup 48 containing a quantity of conventional chemical explosive 52, and an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML) 53 positioned adjacent the bottom section 46 and wall section 50 of small primer cup 48, as seen in FIG. 7. The small primer cup 48 is electrically insulated from the large primer cup 45 via insulator 51 and RML 53 while large primer cup 45 is connected electrically to cartridge 40 and the metal frame of the gun, as seen in FIG. 8. The RML 53 may be constructed from any of the multilayers of the types illustrated in FIGS. 2, 3A and 3B, but preferably of the 3B type with the reactive multilayers deposited on an aluminum foil. The bottom section 46 of larger primer cup 45 is provided with an opening 54 which aligns with hole 44 in cartridge 40.

In operation, as seen with respect to FIG. 8, the primer 43 of cartridge 40 is electrically activated via a power supply, such as a battery 55 having a negative terminal indicated at 56 and a positive terminal indicated at 57, and a switch, generally indicated at 58, connected between battery 55 and primer 43. Battery 55 may, for example, be of a 1.5-100 V type, with a 9 volt small conventional battery being sufficient. The primer 43 of cartridge 40 is activated as follows:

1. The negative terminal 56 of battery 55 is in electrical contact with the inverted large primer cup 45 via the case of cartridge 40, as indicated at 59 in FIG. 8, via the metal frame of a gun 60, as indicated 61.

2. The battery 55 can be stored in a hollow portion of the gun such as in the pistol grip.

3. The positive terminal 57 of battery 55 is in electrical contact with the small primer cup 48 of primer 43, as indicated at 62, via the switch 58. This may be accomplished using a separate and isolated probe which includes switch 58 and which attached to positive lead or terminal 57 of battery 55.

4. Firing of the primer 43 is accomplished by completing the circuit whereby current is allowed to pass from the large primer cup 45 through the small primer cup 48 via the RML 53.

5. Passing 9 volts, for example, through the RML 53 will cause it to ignite, causing ignition of explosive 52 in small cup 48, as indicated by arrow 63 in hole 44, and thereby initiating the larger charge 42 of standard chemical in initiator materials in cavity 41 of cartridge 40.

It has thus been shown that the present invention provides limited-life primers and detonators which can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined time. By using an inorganic reactive multilayer material no hazards to the environment are produced, and the sensitivity is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time, and thus time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the determination of the life-time of the primer. Incorporation of a phase changing material prevents extension of the primer life-time by low temperature storage.

While specific process examples, embodiments, materials, parameters, etc. have been set forth to describe the invention, such are not intended to be limiting. Modifications and changes may become apparent to those skilled in the art, and it is intended that the scope of the invention be limited only by the appended claims.

http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=3&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=6881284&OS=6881284&RS=6881284

When you buy a car, phone or a new tv, we all look for company name & specially the model. What model is it and what year model that we are buying.... when it comes to weapons & ammo most of the people fail to look for the same thing when he comes to guns & ammo. why ?

Most of the ammo is not that sensitive compare to .22lr. With proper storage Moisture gets to the bullets. Which kills the life of that ammo.

.50CAL
18-02-2013, 09:40 PM
Best Pistol for Home Defense


Pistols are another popular choice for home defense weapons. Some of the most popular pistols to purchase are .22lr, .9 mm, .40 cal., and .45 cal., which means that the ammunition is also widely available. In a situation where ammunition becomes scarce, having one of these three calibers, especially 22lr, 9mm and .40 caliber, may allow you to use it as a medium of exchange to trade for other goods. Likewise, it will be much easier to find than other ‘specialty’ ammunition.


Before you purchase a weapon for home defense, you want to take into consideration:



The price of the firearm, magazine and ammunition
How much recoil it will have
Whether or not there is a safety mechanism on the firearm
What type of firearm offers up the highest capacity for magazines
And of course, which firearm offers the most stopping power


9 mm firearms recoils the least, so it’s generally the easiest of the three to stay on target after pulling the trigger, and usually offers higher capacity magazines compared to the other two. 9 mm is usually the least expensive of the three. A con to this type of firearm is it does have the least stopping power. Beretta, CZ, Sig.


.40 caliber firearms offers (in a defensive round) more stopping power than 9 mm, but usually ‘snaps’¯ (or recoils) more than BOTH 9 mm AND .45. Many law enforcement personnel have switched from 9mm semi-automatic handguns to the .40 caliber in recent years because of the increased stopping power. Glock


.45 caliber firearms offers the most stopping power but you’ll generally have to sacrifice a few rounds of magazine capacity and a bit a penetration (which might be a good thing depending on the situation). Comparably speaking, between the three calibers discussed, there usually isn’t that much of a price difference between the three calibers discussed, although the .45 is the most expensive. 1911

.22 caliber firearms almost no recoil which can be used for hunting, specially personal protection and target practice, you can stock even more especially since it is so cheap. Ruger SR22, ISSC M22.

doc pistol
19-02-2013, 12:12 AM
Best Pistol for Home Defense


Pistols are another popular choice for home defense weapons. Some of the most popular pistols to purchase are .22lr, .9 mm, .40 cal., and .45 cal., which means that the ammunition is also widely available. In a situation where ammunition becomes scarce, having one of these three calibers, especially 22lr, 9mm and .40 caliber, may allow you to use it as a medium of exchange to trade for other goods. Likewise, it will be much easier to find than other ‘specialty’ ammunition.


Before you purchase a weapon for home defense, you want to take into consideration:



The price of the firearm, magazine and ammunition
How much recoil it will have
Whether or not there is a safety mechanism on the firearm
What type of firearm offers up the highest capacity for magazines
And of course, which firearm offers the most stopping power

9 mm firearms recoils the least, so it’s generally the easiest of the three to stay on target after pulling the trigger, and usually offers higher capacity magazines compared to the other two. 9 mm is usually the least expensive of the three. A con to this type of firearm is it does have the least stopping power. Beretta, CZ, Sig.


.40 caliber firearms offers (in a defensive round) more stopping power than 9 mm, but usually ‘snaps’¯ (or recoils) more than BOTH 9 mm AND .45. Many law enforcement personnel have switched from 9mm semi-automatic handguns to the .40 caliber in recent years because of the increased stopping power. Glock


.45 caliber firearms offers the most stopping power but you’ll generally have to sacrifice a few rounds of magazine capacity and a bit a penetration (which might be a good thing depending on the situation). Comparably speaking, between the three calibers discussed, there usually isn’t that much of a price difference between the three calibers discussed, although the .45 is the most expensive. 1911

.22 caliber firearms almost no recoil which can be used for hunting, specially personal protection and target practice, you can stock even more especially since it is so cheap. Ruger SR22, ISSC M22.

taking the sound into consideration, dont u think .40 and .45 might leave the shooter with permanent hearing damage if used indoors, though under such circumstances one can expect that from 9mm also but considering the reliability factor and .22 cal being most notorious for jams fte and ftf, 9mm emerges better out of the lot????????

doc pistol
19-02-2013, 12:17 AM
also considering the tests on ballistic jelly between 9mm JHP, and .45JHP, There is hardly a difference of .12 of and inch between the cavities formed from both weapons, and considering accounts of shooters, people survived.45 cal shot to the chest while single shot of .22 was lethal in many cases therefore shot placement is most important........ 40 and 45 have problems with weight, size of pistol and less ergonomic and bigger bang with bigger recoil, these are easier for law enforcement officials because they dont have to carry concealed and their training level is definitely more than a civilian ( unless the civilian gets free ammo for practice and has nothing else to do in life than just do physical training and shoot weapons ).......again here doesnt 9mm emerge better????????????

Marker
19-02-2013, 06:42 AM
Best Pistol for Home Defense


Pistols are another popular choice for home defense weapons. Some of the most popular pistols to purchase are .22lr, .9 mm, .40 cal., and .45 cal., which means that the ammunition is also widely available. In a situation where ammunition becomes scarce, having one of these three calibers, especially 22lr, 9mm and .40 caliber, may allow you to use it as a medium of exchange to trade for other goods. Likewise, it will be much easier to find than other ‘specialty’ ammunition.


Before you purchase a weapon for home defense, you want to take into consideration:



The price of the firearm, magazine and ammunition
How much recoil it will have
Whether or not there is a safety mechanism on the firearm
What type of firearm offers up the highest capacity for magazines
And of course, which firearm offers the most stopping power


9 mm firearms recoils the least, so it’s generally the easiest of the three to stay on target after pulling the trigger, and usually offers higher capacity magazines compared to the other two. 9 mm is usually the least expensive of the three. A con to this type of firearm is it does have the least stopping power. Beretta, CZ, Sig.


.40 caliber firearms offers (in a defensive round) more stopping power than 9 mm, but usually ‘snaps’¯ (or recoils) more than BOTH 9 mm AND .45. Many law enforcement personnel have switched from 9mm semi-automatic handguns to the .40 caliber in recent years because of the increased stopping power. Glock


.45 caliber firearms offers the most stopping power but you’ll generally have to sacrifice a few rounds of magazine capacity and a bit a penetration (which might be a good thing depending on the situation). Comparably speaking, between the three calibers discussed, there usually isn’t that much of a price difference between the three calibers discussed, although the .45 is the most expensive. 1911

.22 caliber firearms almost no recoil which can be used for hunting, specially personal protection and target practice, you can stock even more especially since it is so cheap. Ruger SR22, ISSC M22.

Brother .50CAL if you can share your own experiences, we would love to learn from them. We also surf the web and come across article like yours. It is a good article though. Here is the link :) http://www.shtfplan.com/emergency-preparedness/home-defense-if-you-cant-protect-it-you-dont-own-it_09212012

By the way I couldn't find any relevance in your previous long copy and pastes from US Patent archives. We are still waiting for your expert opinion on Rimfire and centerfire cartridge reliability.

Moeen
06-05-2013, 11:08 AM
Salam All,
Here is the deal with the 22 ammo I have experienced, the wax coating in the hot climate tends to weaken if not destroy the powder charge. Also the 22lr bullet is seated loosely in the case hence moisture tends to get into it reducing shelf life. I now keep most of my stock of 22 rounds in ziplock bags with the silica pellets. This is the main reason as to why most 22 rounds fail.
As for .50CAL's point regarding cheap ammo purchasers, that is very very true. Most 22 ammo is purchased in bulk and is quite old usually and fresh stock is a little higher in cost with the costliest being CCI here which does work flawlessly.

ajmal virk
06-05-2013, 01:45 PM
Nice share

jagga
14-05-2013, 10:20 PM
Best Pistol for Home Defense


Pistols are another popular choice for home defense weapons. Some of the most popular pistols to purchase are .22lr, .9 mm, .40 cal., and .45 cal., which means that the ammunition is also widely available. In a situation where ammunition becomes scarce, having one of these three calibers, especially 22lr, 9mm and .40 caliber, may allow you to use it as a medium of exchange to trade for other goods. Likewise, it will be much easier to find than other ‘specialty’ ammunition.


Before you purchase a weapon for home defense, you want to take into consideration:



The price of the firearm, magazine and ammunition
How much recoil it will have
Whether or not there is a safety mechanism on the firearm
What type of firearm offers up the highest capacity for magazines
And of course, which firearm offers the most stopping power


9 mm firearms recoils the least, so it’s generally the easiest of the three to stay on target after pulling the trigger, and usually offers higher capacity magazines compared to the other two. 9 mm is usually the least expensive of the three. A con to this type of firearm is it does have the least stopping power. Beretta, CZ, Sig.


.40 caliber firearms offers (in a defensive round) more stopping power than 9 mm, but usually ‘snaps’¯ (or recoils) more than BOTH 9 mm AND .45. Many law enforcement personnel have switched from 9mm semi-automatic handguns to the .40 caliber in recent years because of the increased stopping power. Glock


.45 caliber firearms offers the most stopping power but you’ll generally have to sacrifice a few rounds of magazine capacity and a bit a penetration (which might be a good thing depending on the situation). Comparably speaking, between the three calibers discussed, there usually isn’t that much of a price difference between the three calibers discussed, although the .45 is the most expensive. 1911

.22 caliber firearms almost no recoil which can be used for hunting, specially personal protection and target practice, you can stock even more especially since it is so cheap. Ruger SR22, ISSC M22.

9mm does not have the least stopping power the weakest round mentioned is the .22 which is very weak when compared to 9mm,

.22 is only suitable for target practice or small game and does not have the reliability or power to be used for self defence

anyone can copy and paste so please try to be more constructive and come up with a reply that makes sense

Moeen
25-05-2013, 09:32 AM
Salam All,
I carry my 22 because its very light and very concealable very comfortable. If we all lived in the US then we could openly carry (in some States) wearing jeans or such. Here its the Shalwar Kameez and I find lugging around something like even a G***K to be a hassle. Only exception I have is the carrying of 22s either the walther ppk, p22, beretta or such.

Ch_Adnan
25-05-2013, 06:53 PM
i m also carry .22 llama and .22 is accurate and best ccw in my opinion

MHMalik
25-05-2013, 11:43 PM
While I personally would not feel very comfortable carrying a 22lr handgun for SD, I feel it is MY lack of skill rather than a question of the 22's lethality. I wish I was skilled enough to deliver a projectile exactly where I intended and have faith in my handgun should need arise to neutralize the threat. It would be very convenient to carry a Walther P22 for such purposes.

Moeen
02-06-2013, 09:11 PM
Salam All,
Well stated; I would like to suggest that one fires their .22 well before attempting carry. Why? They will understand and trust that weapon better.